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smallest organisms on earth, each of which is made up of only one cell

Cell Membrane

or Plasma Membrane; flexible structure that holds a cell together, forms a boundary between the cell and its enviornment, and helps control what enters and leaves the cell

Cell Wall

structure of plants, algae, fungi, and many types of bacteria that supports and protects the cell membrane


gelatin like substance inside the cell membrane that contains water, chemicals, and organelles


specialized cell parts that perform a cell's activities


the control center of the cell that contains genetic material (chromosomes)


balloon like cell organelle in the cytoplasm that can store food, water, and wastes, also provide pressure against the cell wall for cellular support in plant cells


takes in nutrients, breaks them down during cellular respiration, and create energy for the cell


process by which plants, algae, and many types of bacteria use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to make food and oxygen


are the food producers in a plant cell; photosynthesis takes place here; they absorb light energy from the sun and produce food in the form of glucose sugar from carbon dioxide and water


group of similar cells that all do the same work


structure made of two or more different tissue types that work together to do a certain job

Organ System

group of organs that work together to peform a certain task


basic units of all living things


are in the nucleus; contains DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

the chemical conatined in chromosomes that determines which traits an organism will have


the movement of material from an area where molecules are crowded to an area where they are less crowded


a tiny organelle that contains enzymes specialized to break down ingested materials, secretions and wastes


a small, round structure that makes proteins for a cell

Cell Theory

one of the foundations of biology; six major tenants
1. The cell is the basic building block in all living things.
2. All organisms are made up of one or more cells.
3. Similar cells from similar species are essentially the same in chemical composition.
4. All cells come from the division of preexisting cells.
5. Cells contain genetic material that is passed down to daughter cells during cell division.
6. Energy flow(metabolism) occurs within cells.

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