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20 terms

Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems, Organisms

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Bacteria
smallest organisms on earth, each of which is made up of only one cell
Cell Membrane
or Plasma Membrane; flexible structure that holds a cell together, forms a boundary between the cell and its enviornment, and helps control what enters and leaves the cell
Cell Wall
structure of plants, algae, fungi, and many types of bacteria that supports and protects the cell membrane
Cytoplasm
gelatin like substance inside the cell membrane that contains water, chemicals, and organelles
Organelle
specialized cell parts that perform a cell's activities
Nucleus
the control center of the cell that contains genetic material (chromosomes)
Vacuole
balloon like cell organelle in the cytoplasm that can store food, water, and wastes, also provide pressure against the cell wall for cellular support in plant cells
Mitochondria
takes in nutrients, breaks them down during cellular respiration, and create energy for the cell
Photosynthesis
process by which plants, algae, and many types of bacteria use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to make food and oxygen
Chloroplast
are the food producers in a plant cell; photosynthesis takes place here; they absorb light energy from the sun and produce food in the form of glucose sugar from carbon dioxide and water
Tissue
group of similar cells that all do the same work
Organ
structure made of two or more different tissue types that work together to do a certain job
Organ System
group of organs that work together to peform a certain task
Cells
basic units of all living things
Chromosomes
are in the nucleus; contains DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
the chemical conatined in chromosomes that determines which traits an organism will have
Diffusion
the movement of material from an area where molecules are crowded to an area where they are less crowded
Lysosome
a tiny organelle that contains enzymes specialized to break down ingested materials, secretions and wastes
Ribosome
a small, round structure that makes proteins for a cell
Cell Theory
one of the foundations of biology; six major tenants
1. The cell is the basic building block in all living things.
2. All organisms are made up of one or more cells.
3. Similar cells from similar species are essentially the same in chemical composition.
4. All cells come from the division of preexisting cells.
5. Cells contain genetic material that is passed down to daughter cells during cell division.
6. Energy flow(metabolism) occurs within cells.