Microbiology: Final Exam

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Terms in this set (231)
Signs of diseaseObjective and measurable, can be directly observedsymptoms of diseaseThey are subjective, they are experienced by patient and cannot be observedSyndromeSpecific signs and symptoms of a particular diseaseInfectious diseaseA disease that is caused by a pathogenCommunicable diseasea disease that is spread from one host to anothercontagious diseasea disease that is easily spread from one host to anotherzoonotic diseasedisease that can be passed between animals and humansnoncommunicable diseasea disease that is not transmitted from one host to anothernoninfectious diseaseA disease that is not caused by a pathogenacute diseasesymptoms develop rapidlychronic diseaseongoing condition or illnesslatent diseasedisease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactiveMorbidityThe state of being diseasedprevalenceThe number of cases of a particular disease or condition present in a population at a given time.Incidencenumber of new cases of a diseasesporadic diseasedisease that occurs occasionally in a populationendemic diseasedisease constantly present in a populationepidemic diseasedisease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short timePandemic diseaseworldwide epidemicPathogenicityability of a microorganism to cause diseaseVirulencedegree of pathogenicitymedian infectious dose (ID50)the number of pathogen cells or virions required to cause active infection in 50% of inoculated animalsprimary pathogena microbe able to cause disease in an otherwise healthy individualopportunistic pathogencauses disease only in the absence of normal host resistancereservoirs of infectionsites where pathogens are maintained as a source of infectionCarrierAn individual capable of transmitting pathogen without symptomsDirect contact transmissionrequires close association between infected and susceptible hostdirect droplet transmissionTransmission of pathogen to new host within one meter.indirect contact transmissionspreads to a host by a nonliving object called a fomiteFomiteinanimate objectwaterborn transmissionWater contamination through poor sanitation methodsfoodborn transmissionThe contamination of food through poor sanitation methods and storageAirborn transmissionAerosols carrying pathogens in airVectorAgent who carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organismmechanical transmissionvector carries pathogen on feetbiological transmissionpathogen reproduces in vectorExposureEncounter with potential pathogenportal of entrya way for the causative agent to enter a new reservoir or hostparenteral routea portal of entry for pathogens by breach in protective barrier of skinAdhesionThe capability of pathogen to attach to cells of hostInvasionDissemination of pathogen throughout local tissues or bodyLocal infectionpathogens are limited to a small area of the bodyfocal infectionwhen infectious agent breaks loose from a local infection and is carried to other tissuessystemic infectionan infection throughout the bodyprimary infectioninitial infectionsecondary infectionopportunistic infection after a primary infectionportal of exitany body opening on an infected person that allows pathogens to leaveBacteremiabacteria in the bloodViremiaviruses in the bloodToxemiatoxins in the bloodsepticemiainfection in the bloodsepticPatient with septicemiahemolysinslyse red blood cellsLeukocidinsCytotoxin that kills white blood cellsantigenic variationPathogens alter their surface antigens (and antibodies are rendered ineffective)EpidemiologyThe study of incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseasesetiologystudy of the cause of diseaseobservational studiesResearchers carefully and systematically observe and record behaviour without interfering with behaviour.descriptive epidemiologycollection and analysis of data. Good method for outbreaksanalytical epidemiologycomparison of a diseased group and a healthy groupretrospective studiesstudying participants with a disease and tracing behaviors to determine causeprospective studyan observational study in which subjects are followed to observe future outcomescohort methodExamine group with similar characteristicsCase-control studyA type of epidemiologic study where a group of individuals with the diseases, referred to as cases, are compared to individuals without the disease, referred to as controlscross-sectional studyA study in which a representative cross section of the population is tested or surveyed at one specific time.experimental epidemiologyinvolves a hypothesis and controlled experiments. Labs and clinicsnosocomial infectionhospital acquired infectionVirionsvirus particlesBactriophageA virus that infects bacteriaacute viral infectioninfection with rapid onset of symptomschronic viral infectionType of persistent viral infection, the virus is recurrent and symptoms are noticeable.latent viral infectionvirus remains in asymptomatic host cell for long periodsvivoWithin living organismvitrooutside a living organismprophagethe viral DNA that is embedded in the host cell's DNAlysogena bacterium containing a prophageprionprotein particles that cause diseasemoldmulticellular fungiyeastunicellular fungimycosisfungal infectionDermatophytesA type of fungi that requires keratin and causes skin, hair, and nail infections.Mycotoxinsfungal toxinsBioaccumulationThe accumulation of a chemical substances in a organismtrophozoiteGrowing stage in life cycle of protozoan, absorbs nutrients from hostSchizogonyAsexual reproduction of protozoan through multiple fissionintermediate hosta host that gives food and shelter to immature stages of a parasitedefinitive hostthe host in which the sexual reproduction of a parasite takes placedioeciousHaving male and female reproductive organs in separate plants or animalsmonoecioushaving male and female reproductive organs in the same plant or animalSuperficial mycosesFungi diseases that affect the surface only of hair, skin, or nailscutaneous mycosesfungal disease that affects hair, skin, and nailsSubcutaneous mycosesfungal disease beneath the skin, tissue and muscleSystemic mycosesfungal infection deep within the bodyTineasGeneral term to describe skin mycoses. Caused by dermatophytesRingwormTineas on most areas of bodyathlete's foottinea pedisjock itchtinea crurisergot toxinErgotism, mania and hallucinationsaflatoxincarcinogenic toxin, development of liver cancerdiatomsProduce domoic acid and lead to domoic acid toxicosisdinoflagellatesProduce saxitoxins and lead to paralytic shellfish poisoningEntamoeba histolyticaCauses amoebic dysentery. Definitive host humansPlasmodium vivaxCauses malaria. Definitive host is mosquitoes and intermediate host is humansToxoplasma gondiiCauses toxoplasmosis. Definitive host cats and intermediate host birds and rodentsNematodaRoundwormsPlatyhelminthesflatwormsTaenia soliumCauses taeniasi, pork tape worm. Definitive host humans and intermediate host pigsSchistosoma spp.Causes schistosomiasis. Definitive host humans and intermediate host snailsEchinococcus granulosusCauses hydatid disease. Definitive host dog and intermediate host sheep, pigs, and goatsEnterbius vermicularisCauses enterobiasis, pinworms. Definitive host humansAscaris lumbricoidesCauses ascariasis. Definitive host humansNonspecific innate immune responseProvides initial defence for body and prevents infectionsmucociliary escalatorcilia that transport mucus and foreign material out of the respiratory tractantimicrobial peptides(AMPs) lyse bacterial cellsPlasma protein mediatorsHelp maintains homeostasis, part of the complement system, cytokines, and innate immune responseCytokineProteins that allow cell to cell communicationAutocrineTerm to describe cytokine function. Same cells secrete and receive signalParacrineTerm to describe cytokine function. Secretes signal to nearby cellEndocrineTerm to describe cytokine function. Signal secrete to circulatory systemInterleukinsType of cytokine. Stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytesChemokinesType of cytokine. Recruits WBC to site of infection (e.g. C5a)interferonsType of cytokine. Interfere with viral replication within cellsinflammation eliciting mediatorsChemical mediator that contributes to inflammationLymphocyteType of WBC, either B-cell or T-cell. Can be natural killers.monocyteType of WBC, differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cellsOpsonization (opsonins)the coating of pathogens by proteins called opsonins, making them more vulnerable to phagocytesDiapedesisthe passage of blood cells through the intact walls of the capillaries, typically accompanying inflammation.sebumEndogenous, secrete oily substance to seal off pores from bacteriaOleic acidExogenous, acidic environment on skin so inhospitable to bacteriaAcidic gastric fluidEndogenous, kills most bacteria in gutUrineEndogenous, flushes out microbes and kills with aciditylactateExogenous, inhibits bacterial growthEndogenousProduced within the bodyExogenousProduced outside the bodyBacteriocinsType of antimicrobial peptide. Disrupts plasma membrane. 1CathelicidinsType of antimicrobial peptide. Disrupts plasma membrane. 2DefensinsType of antimicrobial peptide. Disrupts plasma membrane. 3dermicidinType of antimicrobial peptide. Disrupts plasma membrane and ion channels.HistatinsType of antimicrobial peptide. Disrupts intracellular function.Alternative pathwayPathway for complement cascade. spontaneous activation of C3Classical pathwayPathway for complement cascade. Antibody attaches to pathogen to create antibody-antigen complex. C1.lectin activation pathwayPathway for complement cascade. Mannose-binding lectin binds to bacterial surface carbohydrates to activate.NeutrophilsFirst on scene, a type of WBC that engulfs microbes by phagocytosis and self destructs. Pus.EosinophilsTarget protozoan and helminths. Allergic reaction through production of histamine.BasophilsActivated by C3a and C5a to release histamine in bloodMast cellsSimilar to basophils but in tissuemacrophagesImmune protection to other cells and recruitment through cytokinesdendritic cellsspecialized white blood cells that patrol the body searching for antigens that produce infections. Root-like.adaptive immunitythe ability to recognize and remember specific antigens and mount an attack on themcellular immunityimmune response that relies on T cells to destroy infected body cellshumoral immunityspecific immunity produced by B cells that produce antibodies that circulate in body fluidsepitopesthe part of an antigen molecule to which an antibody attaches itselfhaptensmall molecule that has to bind to a larger molecule to form an antigenIgGIgG is the most common type of antibody found in blood circulation. IgG molecules are created and released by plasma B cells. Each IgG has two antigen binding sites.IgMIgM is the largest antibody, and it is the first antibody to appear in the response to initial exposure to an antigen. Requires a lot of energyIgAMost of the secreted IgA lines the mucosal surfaces including respiratory, digestive and genitourinary tracts to protect against pathogens while maintaining gut homeostasis.IgDB cell receptorIgEproduced by the immune system. If you have an allergy, your immune system overreacts to an allergen by producing theseneutralizationBinding IgG, IgM, and IgA prevents pathogens from functioning properlyOpsonizationcoating antigen with antibody enhances phagocytosisComplementC1 interacts with antibody for classical pathwayagglutinationAggregates antibody, easier for kidney and spine to filter out and phagocytes to ingestAntibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicityantibody attached to large pathogens cause destruction by cytotoxinsMHC IAll nucleated cells, present normal self-antigens as well as abnormal or non self-antigens to attract T-cellsMHC IIOnly found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. They present abnormal antigens for activation of T-cellsLive attenuated vaccinesLive pathogen, but weakened. May cause minor illness in rare cases.Inactivated vaccinesPathogen has been completely killed. Frequently requires boosters.subunit vaccinesuse antigenic fragments to stimulate an immune responseToxoid vaccinesinactivated toxins protect against diseases caused by bacterial toxinsconjugated vaccinesused for diseases in children with poor immune response to capsular polysaccharidesnucleic acid vaccinesoften called DNA vaccines, are among the newest and most promising vaccinesAbscesslocalized collection of pusbullaa large blister that is usually more than 1 cm in diameterFolliculitisinflammation of the hair folliclesFuruncleboil; inflammation originating in a hair follicleCarbunclea cluster of connected furuncles (boils)maculesflat spots on the skin, such as frecklesPapulesFirm raised areas on the skinpustulespus-filled sacs such as those seen in acne, or pimplespyodermaany acute, inflammatory, pus-forming bacterial skin infectionulceropen sorevesiclea small fluid-filled skin lesion that is usually less than 1 cm in diameterWhealInflamed skin that itches or burns, such as insect biteComedonacneRhinitisinflammation of the noseSinusitisinflammation of the sinusOtitisinflammation of the earpharyngitisinflammation of the throatlaryngitisinflammation of the larynxtonsillitisinflammation of the tonsilsbronchitisinflammation of the bronchial tubespneumoniainflammation of the lungspetechiaesmall hemorrhages under the skinSepsisSevere inflammatory response due to infection in bloodendocarditisinflammation of the inner lining of the heartpericarditisinflammation of the sac surrounding the heartmyocarditisinflammation of the heart muscleVasculitisinflammation of blood vessels/ heat muscle tissueischemialack of blood flowLyphangitisinflammation of lymphatic vesselslymphadenitisswollen lymph nodesGastronintestinal intoxicationDisease of the microbial toxins in GI tractGastritisinflammation of the stomach liningEnteritisinflammation of the intestinegastroenteritisinflammation of the stomach and intestinesHepatitisinflammation of the liverColitisinflammation of the colonmeningesthree layers of connective tissue in which the brain and spinal cord are wrappedblood-brain barrierA mechanism that prevents certain molecule from entering the brain but allows others to crossMeningitisinflammation of the meningesEncephalitisinflammation of the brainCystitisinflammation of the bladderUrethritisinflammation of the urethraUreteritisinfection of the ureterspyelonephritiskidney infection of both or oneglomerulonephritisinflammation of the glomeruli within the kidneyepitdidymitisInflammation of the epididymisorchitisinflammation of the testesprostatitisinflammation of the prostate glandvaginitisinflammation of the vaginabacterial vaginosisAn overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina