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Cardiac muscle has the _____ type of acetylcholine receptors

dual innervation

An organ is said to have ____ when it receives both sympathetic and parasympathetic


_____ receptors bind norepinephrine


The gray ramus communicans gets its color from the lack of ____


In the peripheral nervous system, the cell bodies of the neurons are concentrated in masses called _____


The sympathetic nervous system is also called the ___ division of the autonomic nervous system, referring to the site of origin of its efferent fibers


Both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems have cholinergic fibers


The adrenal medulla consists of modified neurons of the sympathetic nervous system


The autonomic nervous system does not innervate any skeletal muscle fibers


All preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system end at synapses in the paravertebral ganglia


Neuronal divergence occurs in the sympathetic division but not in the parasympathetic division


Not all organs that receive sympathetic nerve fibers also receive parasympathetic fibers


The vasomotor tone of the blood vessels is an effect of continual stimulation by sympathetic neurons

p (afferent fibers)

Nerve fibers that conduct sensory signals to the central nervous system

a (enteric)

Nerves found only in the digestive system

i (vagus nerves)

Contains 90% of the fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system

n (paravertebral ganglia)

Site where most presynaptic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system release their neurotransmitter

e (neuronal divergence)

One presynaptic neuron stimulates multiple postsynaptic neurons

j (hypothalamus)

Major control area of visceral motor activities

f (norepinephrine)

Secreted by most post ganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system

r (atropine)

Blocks muscarine receptors

z (philocarpine)

Increases the effects of the parasympathetic

y (dorsal root ganglia)

Site of somas of most postsynaptic sympathetic neurons


Which of the following is most responsible for bringing about bladder constriction and internal urethral spincter relaxation
a. tympanic ganglion
b. otic ganglion
c. inferior hypogastric plexus
d. abdominal aortic plexus
e. inferior mesenteric ganglion


The cardiac pulmonary and esophageal plexuses are formed by fibers of the _____.
a. vagus
b. glossopharyngeal
c. facial
d. accessory
e. hypoglossal


This parasympathetic nerve control salivary secretions
a. facial
b. trigeminal
c. splanchnic
e. vagus


This parasympathetic nerve controls swallowing
a. facial
b. saphenous
c. celiac
d. vagus
e. splanchnic


This hormone would increase to the greatest degree in stressful situations
a. noradrenalin
b. epinephrine
c. dopamine
d. L-Dopa
e. nor-epinephrine


The paravertebral ganglia are connected via spinal nerves in which regions?
a. saccral
b. cranial
c. cervical
d. coccygeal
e. thoracic


If you blocked the cardiac beta receptors, you would expect to see:
a. a slower pulse
b. a faster pulse
c. a rise in blood pressure
d. more forceful heart contractions
e. no effect


Destruction of the sympathetic nervous system will produce
a. orgasm
b. labor contractions
c. circulatory shock
d bronchodilation
e. glycogen breakdown


Which of the following must have a central nervous system connections to operate at least minimally
a. heart
b. enteric nervous system
c. skeletal muscle
d. stomach
e. visceral effectors


Nicotinic receptors bind
a. epinephrine
b. norepinephrine
c. dopamine
d. acetylcholinesterase
e. acetylcholine


One division of the autonomic nervous system stimulates your salivary glands to secrete a watery solution of enzymes and the other division stimulates them to secrete mucus. Together these secretions constitute the saliva. This is an example of
a. a dual effect
b. a sympathetic effect
c. an antagonistic effect
d a cooperative effect
e. a biofeedback effect


The ____ system is characterized by long preganglionic and short postganglionic fibers
a. thoracolumbar
b. craniosacral
c. somatosensory
d. somatic motor
e. sympathetic


The sympathetic nervous system reduces blood flow to
a. the skin
b. the skeletal muscle
c. the heart
d. the lungs
e. the brain


Antagonistic effects of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous systems are exemplified in the control of
a. blood clotting
b. blood flow to the skeletal muscles
c. sweating
d. erection of the hair
e. intestinal motility


The ____ carry parasympathetic efferent fibers to the urinary bladder
a. splanchnic nerves
b. vagal trunks
c. femoral nerves
d. pudendal nerves
e. pelvic nerves


_____ produces a feeling of well-being as opposed to depression
a. adenosine
b. acetylcholine
c. serotonin
d. substance Y
e. MAO


This illness of the autonomic nervous system is manigested by extreme vasoconstriction as well as paleness and cyanosis in the toes and fingers. It is triggered by emotional distress and cold temperatures
a. Horner syndrome
b. Turner syndrome
c. Hackett disease
d. Raynaud disease
e. Huntington disease


_______ is sensitivity to the positions and movements of the limbs and other body parts.


Variations in the pitch of the sounds we hear are due to variations in the ____ of the sound waves reaching the ear


Nerve endings that respond to tissue damage and produce sensations of pain are called ______


The bending of light rays as they pass from on transparent medium into another medium of different optical density is called ______


Any changes in or around the body to which the nervous system reacts is called a/an ______

fovea centralis

The sharpest or most detailed daytime vision occurs in a region of the retina called the ______.


All receptors specialized to detect changes in temperature are called ________.

taste smell

The gustatory and olfactory senses are more commonly called _____ and _______ respectively


There are no rod cells in the fovea centralis


There are no cone cells in the optic disc


In vision the cornea refracts light rays more than the lens does


Rod cells release neurotransmitter in the dark and stop releasing it when they absorb light


Optic nerve fibers end at synapses in the optic chiasma

g (aqueous humor)

Substance found in the posterior chamber of the eye

a (bleaching)

Effect of light on 11-cis retinal

u (cones)

Color vision receptors

d (stapedius)

Helps protect the inner ear from being damaged by loud noises

e (special senses)

Vision, hearing ,taste,smell, and equilibrium

j (ganglion cells)

Origin of all nerve fibers in the optic nerve

b (rods)

All these cells contain the same visual pigment

w (otoliths)

Calcium carbonate-protein granules in the macula sacculi and macula utriculli

p (optic chiasma)

Point where some fibers from the right eye cross over to the left brain

c (enkephalin)

Peptide that blocks the transmission of pain signals


Taste cells produce all of the following sensations except
a. spicy
b. salty
c. bitter
d. sweet
e. sour


Which of the following nerve endings are not found in the skin ?
a. proprioceptors
b. Ruffini's corpuscles
c. tactile corpuscles
d. pacinian corpuscles
e. hair receptors


Convergence of the eyes when focusing on a nearby object is achieved by means of
a. the ciliary muscles
b. the extrinsic muscles
c. the zonular fibers
d. the suspensory ligament
e. the radial fibers


The loudness of a sound is correlated with the ____ of the sound wave
a. pitch
b. freguency
c. amplitiude
e. speed


The semicircular ducts are filled with
a. aqueous humor
b. vitreous humor
c. perilymph
e. cerebospinal fluid


The semicircular ducts lie within
a. the middle ear cavity
b. the auditory tube
c. the membranous labyrinth
d. the vestibule
e. the semicircular canals


Hair cells of the cochlea are stimulated as a result of the up and down vibrations of
a. the basilar membrane
b. the tectorial membrane
c. the vestibular membrane
d. the tympanic membran
e. the otolithic membrane


At normal daylight intensities, the ___cells ar non functional because all their rhodopsin is bleached
a. cone
b rod
c. amacrine
d. bipolar
e. corneal


Which of the following is part of the fibrous tunic of the eye?
a. the rods
b. the choroid
c. the sclera
d. the retina
e. the vitreous body


The blind spot in each visual field is a region in which
a. there are rod cells but no cone cells
b. the are cone cells but no rod cells
c. bipolar cells block light from reaching the rods and cones
d. the iris casts a shadow on part of the retina
e. the optic nerve leaves the eye


When you view objects close to the eye the eye makes an adjustment called
a. emmetropis
b. accommodation
c. refraction
d. myopia
e. diplopia


Substance P
a. is released by damaged tissue and stimulates pain receptors
b. is released by pain receptors and stimulates spinal interneurons
c. is released by interneurons in the thalamus
d. blocks the transmission of pain signals in the spinal cord
e. is responsible for the phenomenon of referred pain


Suppose you were sitting in a rotating chair in a hair salon with your eyes closed and the chair was rotated. You could sense this by means of your
a. cochlea
b. macula utriculi
c. macula sacculi
d. semicircular ducts
e. organ of Corti


The function of the suspensory ligaments is to
a. hold the lens of the eye in place
b. detect stretch in s tendon
c. govern the vibration of the basilar membrane
d. detect stretch in a skeletal muscle
e. constrict the pupil


In vision most light refraction occurs at the interface where light passes
a. from air into the cornea
b. from the cornea into the aqueous humor
c. from the aqueous humor into the lens
d. from the lens into the vitreous body
e. from the vitreous body into the retina


Tears are produced by
a. the tarsal gland
b. the lacrimal gland
c. the puncta lacrimalia
d. the lateral canthi
e. the lacrimal sac


Receptors that respond intensely to the onset of stimulation but quickly stop responding
a proprioceptors
b. interoceptors
c. phasic receptors
d. tonic receptors
e. somesthretic receptors


Which of the following endocrine glands is inferior in location to the rest ?
a. the thyroid
b. the thymus
c. the adrenal gland
d. the pineal body
e. the pituitary gland


The uterus is a target organ of
a. follicle stimulating hormone
b. luteinizing hormone
c.adrenocorticotropic hormone
d. oxytocin
e. gonadotropin releasing hormone


Although growth hormone has many functions they do no include promoting
a. glycogen synthesis
b. thymic involution
c. protein synthesis
d. electrolyte retention
e. fat catabolism


Hypersecretion of growth hormone can cause gigantism if it begins in childhood but is more likely to cause_____ if it begins in adulthood
a. myxedema
b. Grave's disease
c. Cushing's syndrome
e dwarfism


Destruction of the (Beta) cells of the pancreas would cause a loss of _____ secretion
a. adrenocorticotropin
b. somatostatin
c. glucagon
d. somatotropin
e. insulin


Noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus results when
a. glucagon is able to compensate for deficiency of insulin
b. somatostatin is able to compensate for the deficiency of insulin
c. insulin is secreted but target cells lack receptors for it
d. insulin binds to its target cells but the cAMP second messenger system fails to work
e. excessive secretion of insulin triggers hypoglycemia


Calcium metabolism is regulated by
a. the pancreatic islets
b. the adrenal cortex
c. the parathyroid glands
d. the neurohypophysis
e. the thymus


Gonadotropin releasing hormone is secreted by
a. the ovaries
b. the testes
c. the hypothalamus
d. the adrenal gland
e. the anterior pituitary


Neurons called osmoreceptors trigger the secretion of
a. eicosanoids
b. growth hormone inhibiting hormone
c. adrenocorticotropic hormone
d. antidiuretic hormone
e. glucagon


A lack of antidiuretic hormone cause
a. osmotic diuresis
b. diabetes mellitus
c. diabetes insipidus
d. acromegaly
e. Cushing's syndrome


Two glands are especially noted for regressing after childhood namely
a. the anterior and posterior pituitary
b. the thymus and pineal
c. the adrenal cortex and medulla
d. the thyroid and parathyroids
e.the thymus and thyroid


The endocrine gland most affected by stress is
a. the thymus
b. the thyroid
c. the adrenal cortex
d. the parathyroids
e. the neurohypophysis


The production of blood cells and platelets is called ____


The red color of erythrocytes comes from the pigment_____


A blood clot that breaks free and travels in the blood stream is called a/an _____


Leukemia patients are vulnerable to ___ infections causes by pathogens that take advantage of people with impaired immune systems


All mechanisms for stopping bleeding are collectively called____


A person can have a normal RBC count yet still be anemic


RH+ women do not have babies with hemolytic disease of the newborn


Most hemophilia is due to a hereditary lack of factor VIII


An Rh- woman's second or third baby is more like to have hemolytic disease of the newborn than her first baby is


Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood plasma

t (gastoferritin)

Binds to ferrous ions in the stomach

w (megakaryocyte)

Platelet producing cell

o (hematocrit)

Percent of whole blood composed of erythrocytes

l (hematoma)

A bruise or mass of clotted blood in a tissue

f (AB-)

The rarest ABO/Rh blood type

c (agglutinogens)

Erythrocyte antigens that determine a person's ABO blood type

a (basophils)

a source of histamine

n (pernicious anemia)

Results from a hereditary lack of intrinsic factor

l (hematoma)

The nonprotein moiety of hemoglobin

s (kernicterus)

Brain damage resulting from elevated bilirubin levels


Blood has all the following functions except
a. nutrient transport
b. heat transfer
c. clotting
d. hormone production
e. pH buffering


The resistance of a fluid such as blood to flow is called its
a. osmolarity
b. viscosity
c. hematocrit
d. salinity
e. colloid osmotic pressure


Blood serum is essentially the same as blood plasma except that plasma contains ____ and serum does not
a. platelets
b. nitrogenous wastes
c. fibrinogen
d. glucose
e. albumin


Leukopoiesis is
a. a procedure for separating blood cells from plasma
b. a hormone that stimulates blood cells formation
c. the production of white blood cells
d. the process in which white blood cells attack foreign cells
e. a process that stops blood loss when a vessel is broken


Erythrocytes transport oxygen and serve to
a. defend the body against pathogens
b. initiate blood clotting
c. regulate erythropoiesis
d. transport nutrients
e. transport carbon dioxide


The ___ is especially involved in breaking up old erythrocytes and disposing of cellular remains
a. spleen
b. bone marrow
c. lung
d heart
e. kidney


The enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin is
a. thrombin
b. prothrombin
c. fibrinolysin
d. thromboplastin
e. thrombolysin


_____ is secreted in response to hypoxia and produces a negative feedback loop that raises the oxygen concentration of the blood
a. Aldosterone
b. Hemopoietin
c. Heparin
d. Angiotensin
e. Erythropoietin


The pH of the blood is normally about
a. 5.8
b. 6.4
c 7.0
d 7.4
e 8.2


The viscosity of blood is due more to ___ than to any other factor
a. fibrin
b. albumin
c. sodium
d. erythrocytes
e. hydrogen bonding


Which of the following is a normal hematocrit value
a. 12.5 mg/dL
b. 42%
c. 78%
d. 5.0 106 RBCs/L
e. 33 mg-%


Which of the following agents opposes coagulation
a. thrombin
b. vitamin K
c. thromboplastin
d. Hageman factor
e. heparin


An emergency room patient has been in an automobile accident. He is unconscious and his medical history is unknown, but he is found to have blood type b+ He needs blood and only the following types are available. Which would be the safest to asminister
a. O-
b. A-
c. A+
d. AB-
e. AB+


Any form of anemia that results from an excessive rate of erythrocyte destruction is classified
a. pernicious anemia
b. malicious anemia
c. hemorrhagic anemia
d. hemolytic anemia
e. hypoplastic anemis


Which of the following cells is far larger than al the others
a. macrophage
b. monocyte
c. large lympphocyte
d. erthrocyte
e. megakaryocyte


In the hemoglobin molecule the ferrous ion is bound to
a. globin moieties
b. nitrogen atoms
c. carbon atoms
d. sulfur atoms
e. amino acids


In hemostasis , thromboplastin
a. initiates the intrinsic pathway of coagulation
b. initiates the extrinsic pathway of coagulation
c. converts prothrombin to thrombin
d. acts as a potent vasoconstrictor to reduce blood loss
e. dissolves the clot after the tissue has healed


When a clot is no longer needed it is dissolved by
a. prothrombin
b. thromboplastin
c. plasmin
d. kallikrein

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