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26 terms

US Government - First Quiz Vocabulary Terms

For you, Leah.
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Nation
group of people united by bonds of race, language, custom, tradition, and sometimes, religion
State
a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without approval from any higher authority
Nation-State
a country in which the territory of both the nation and the state coincide
Sovereignty
the supreme and absolute authority within territorial boundaries
Unitary System
a government that gives all key powers to the national or central government
Federal System
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
Autocracy
a system of government in which the power to rule is in the hands of a single individual
Oligarchy
a system of government in which a small group holds power
Democracy
government in which the people rule
Totalitarian Dictatorship
a form of autocratic government where the ideas of leaders are glorified and the government seeks to control all aspects of social and economic life
Civil Society
a complex network of voluntary associations, economic groups, religious organizations, and many other kinds of groups that exist independent of government
Social Consensus
when most people in a society accept democratic values and agree about the purpose and limits of government
Capitalism
an economic system providing free choice and individual incentive for workers, investors, consumers, and business enterprises
Socialism
an economic system in which the government owns the basic means of production, distributes the products and wages, and provides social services such as health care and welfare
Mixed-Market Economy
a system in which the government regulates enterprise
Communism
an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions
Popular Sovereignty
rule by the people
Federalism
a system in which power is divided between the national and state government
Separation of Powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Checks and Balances
the system where each branch of government exercises some control over the others
Judicial Review
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Expressed Powers (of Congress)
powers directly stated in the Constitution
Enumerated Powers (of Congress)
the expressed powers of Congress that are itemized and numbered 1-18 in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution
"Necessary and Proper" (or Elastic Clause)
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which gives Congress the power to make all laws that are necessary and proper for carrying out its duties
Judicial Restraint
the philosophy that the Supreme Court should avoid taking that initiative on social and political questions
Judicial Activism
the philosophy that the Supreme Court should play an active role in shaping national policies by addressing social and political issues