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group of people united by bonds of race, language, custom, tradition, and sometimes, religion
a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without approval from any higher authority
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
a form of autocratic government where the ideas of leaders are glorified and the government seeks to control all aspects of social and economic life
a complex network of voluntary associations, economic groups, religious organizations, and many other kinds of groups that exist independent of government
when most people in a society accept democratic values and agree about the purpose and limits of government
an economic system providing free choice and individual incentive for workers, investors, consumers, and business enterprises
an economic system in which the government owns the basic means of production, distributes the products and wages, and provides social services such as health care and welfare
Separation of Powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Checks and Balances
the system where each branch of government exercises some control over the others
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Enumerated Powers (of Congress)
the expressed powers of Congress that are itemized and numbered 1-18 in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution
"Necessary and Proper" (or Elastic Clause)
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which gives Congress the power to make all laws that are necessary and proper for carrying out its duties
the philosophy that the Supreme Court should avoid taking that initiative on social and political questions
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