Terms in this set (32)
naturally occurring, usually inorganic solid that has a characteristic chemical composition, an orderly internal structure, and a characteristic set of physical properties
atoms of two or more elements chemically bonded together
gold, silver, and copper (minerals)
minerals that are valuable and economical to extract
minerals that have no commercial value
conduct electricity, have shiny surfaces, and are opaque.
good insulators, shiny or dull surfaces, allow light to pass through
hot subsurface waters that contain dissolved minerals
deposits of salts that are left behind when water in seas or lakes evaporate
two or more metals combined; important because they often combine the most desirable properties of the metals used to make them.
nonmetallic minerals that are prized purely for their beauty, rarity or durability.
ore deposits mined 50m or more beneath Earth's surface
room and pillar mining
method of subsurface mining used to extract coal and salt
a machine (shearer) moved back and forth across the face of a coal seam.
economical mining method where hot water is injected into the ore and dissolves it. Compressed air is then pumped into the dissolved ore and air bubbles lift it to the surface.
network of entries
used when ore deposits are located close to earth's surface.
open pit mining
method that is often used when large quantities of near surface ore are mined.
rock that covered near surface coal seams
produce large quantities of clay, gypsum, and tale.
sand, gravel, and crushed rock which are the principal commodities produced by quarrying
solar evaporation process
process consisting of placing sea water into enormous shallow ponds. The sun evaporates the sea water which increases the sodium chloride concentration. (method of salt production that is used in areas that have little rainfall and high evaporation rates)
surface deposits where minerals within rocks are concentrated by wind and water.
consists of a floating barge on which buckets fixed on a conveyor are used to excavate sediments in front of the dredge.
use monitors to send high pressure streams of water into the sierra Nevada mountainsides.
crushed ore is melted at high temperatures in furnaces to separate impurities from molten metal.
material in the furnace that bonds with impurities and separates them from the molten metal.
acid mine drainage
process that produces contaminated water
large piled where excess rock from mines are sorted
sinking of regions of the ground with little or no horizontal movement
the process of returning land to its original or better condition after mining is completed
a mining company must post funds, or _____, before a mining project starts.