Advanced Placement United States Government & Politics test review 2018-2019
Terms in this set (60)
a legislature consisting of two parts, or houses
checks and balances
a system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution
House of Representatives
the lower house of Congress, consisting of a different number of representatives from each state, depending on population
the upper house of Congress, consisting of two representatives from each state
An action by the House of Representatives to accuse the president, vice president, or other civil officers of the United States of committing "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
the power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
government with the consent of the governed
powers given to the state government alone
separation of powers
vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies.
powers shared by the national and state governments
powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Manipulate the boundaries of (an electoral constituency) so as to favor one party
Committees of Congress appointed by the House of Representatives and Senate to resolve disagreements on a particular bill
An attempt to defeat a bill in the Senate by talking indefinitely, thus preventing the Senate from taking action on the bill
Powers inferred by the expressed powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions (powers not expressly stated in the constitution but are reasonably suggested)
The redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census, to accommodate population shifts and keep districts as equal as possible in population
President Pro Tempore
The constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the normal presiding officer
Congress using its powers to ensure that executive agencies are carrying out their legislative intent
Congressional powers explicitly stated in the Constitution
The process by which congressional districts are redistributed among states in the House of Representatives
Government practice of spending more than it takes in from taxes
Federal spending required by law that continues without the need for annual approvals by Congress.
President's power to reject a bill passed by Congress
A close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
The authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts
An opinion that agrees with the majority in a Supreme Court ruling but differs on the reasoning.
A statement written by a justice who disagrees with the majority opinion, presenting his or her opinion
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect current conditions and values.
The jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial
court decision that stands as an example to be followed in future, similar cases
Let the decision stand; decisions are based on precedents from previous cases
writ of certiorari
An order by a higher court directing a lower court to send up a case for review
the process by which provisions of the Bill of Rights are brought within the scope of the Fourteenth Amendment and so applied to state and local governments.
an ideology generally favoring limited government and cautious about change
an ideology generally favoring government action and viewing change as progress
an ideology favoring little government interference in the economy and personal freedoms
a member or adherent of a political party seeking to represent the interests of ordinary people.
believe the wealthier classes should pay a much larger percentage of taxes than they currently do
the process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions
government services Congress has promised by law to citizens
government policy to manage the economy by controlling taxing and spending.
government policy to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and interest rates.
any tax in which the burden falls more heavily on the rich than the poor
any tax in which the burden falls more heavily on the poor than the rich, at least as a percentage of their incomes
provides health insurance coverage for the poorest Americans
provides hospital insurance and low-cost medical insurance for almost every American age 65 or older
the citizens' faith and trust in government and their belief that they can understand and influence political affairs
the potential voting population
the right to vote
an officeholder who is seeking reelection.
the congressional elections that take place midway through a president's four-year term.
one party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress
engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
the fundraising arm of an interest group
the cycle in which a person alternately works for the public sector and private sector
a type of independent political action committee which may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, and individuals but is not permitted to contribute to or coordinate directly with parties or candidates.
news coverage that focuses on who is ahead rather than on the issues
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