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anatomy hw questions exam IIII
Terms in this set (50)
Pepsinogen, an inactive digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________
(A) parietal cells of the stomach
(B) goblet cells of the small intestine
(C) Brunner's glands in the duodenum
(D) chief cells of the stomach
Which area of the stomach directly adjoins the small intestine?
T/F: Food often contains bacteria, but the HCl of the stomach is effective in killing most ingested microbes.
Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
(A) parietal cells
(B) mucous neck cells
(C) enteroendocrine cells
(D) zymogenic cells
Specific enteroendocrine cells of the stomach, called G cells, are stimulated by partially digested proteins, caffeine, and rising pH. When stimulated, G cells secrete ________.
(C) hydrochloric acid
T/F: The major stimulus for production of intestinal fluid is distention or irritation of the intestinal mucosa by hypertonic or acidic chyme.
Which of these structures is found in the stomach but nowhere else in the alimentary canal?
(A) a circular muscle layer
(B) mucus-forming cells
(C) an oblique muscle layer
(D) a lining of columnar epithelium
T/F: The only essential function of the stomach is to begin the digestion of proteins.
Some antacid drugs block histamine receptors, resulting in reduction of the production and excretion of stomach acid. These drugs have the biggest effect on which of the following?
(A) chief cells
(B) parietal cells
(C) mucous neck cells
(D) surface epithelial cells
Which of the following is NOT a function of cholecystokinin (CCK)?
(A) open hepatopancreatic sphincter
(B) increase production of pancreatic juice
(C) increase production of stomach acid
(D) stimulate gallbladder to release bile
The bolus is liquefied in the ________ and it is now called chyme.
(C) small intestine
Which of the following is NOT a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
(A) secretion of pepsinogen
(B) tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells
(C) thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus
(D) replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells
Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
(A) Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.
(B) The presence of food in the stomach prevents hormonal control of gastric secretion.
(C) Vagus stimulation of the stomach results in decreased secretion of gastric juice.
(D) Gastric secretion is enhanced by very low pH (below a pH of 2).
The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
(A) Increased production of trypsinogen.
(B) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
(C) This type of food would cause secretion of gastrin to cease, resulting in faster gastric emptying.
(D) The acid secretions from the stomach would be sufficient to digest this food but may cause heartburn.
T/F: Distension of the duodenum triggers the release of enterogastrones, a group of hormones secreted from the duodenal mucosa that inhibit gastric emptying and secretion.
The __________ phase of gastric secretion begins as chyme enters the duodenum.
(A) gastric phase
T/F: The stomach's contractile rhythm is set by pacemaker cells found in the spinal cord.
Which of the following is the major process or function that occurs in the stomach?
(D) mechanical breakdown
T/F: Chief cells secrete inactive pepsinogen in order to prevent acid erosion inside of the chief cells.
Select the one response below that would NOT result from a drug that blocks histamine receptors in the cells lining the stomach.
(A) It would lower the activity of parietal cells.
(B) It would reduce the symptoms of heartburn.
(C) It would cause the release of secretin and cholecystokinin.
(D) It would raise the pH of the stomach.
T/F: The relatively unchanging pressure in a filling stomach is due to the contraction of the stomach oblique muscle layer.
T/F: Pepsinogen is the precursor to the gastric enzyme for protein digestion and is secreted by the parietal cells.
What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
(B) intrinsic factor
(C) gastric lipase
Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
Which of the following is produced in the stomach and contributes directly to the absorption of vitamin B12?
(B) Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
(C) intrinsic factor
(D) hydrochloric acid
Which digestive process does NOT occur in the mouth?
(B) mechanical breakdown
Which of the following functions is NOT correctly matched with its description?
(A) mechanical breakdown: churning movements in the GI tract
(B) ingestion: taking food into the digestive tract
(C) absorption: transport of chemically digested nutrients into the blood or lymph
(D) propulsion: physical breakdown of ingested food in the GI tract
The chemical process of food breakdown is called ________.
Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.
T/F: All the chemical and mechanical phases of digestion from the mouth through the small intestine are directed toward changing food into forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa into the underlying blood and lymphatic vessels.
Which layer of the alimentary canal is constructed from either stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium?
(B) muscularis externa
Which layer of the alimentary canal is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis?
(D) muscularis externa
Which layer of the alimentary canal contains not only glands and blood vessels but also a nerve plexus that helps regulate digestive activity?
(C) muscularis externa
Which layer of the digestive tract contains the effectors for digestive propulsion?
(B) muscularis externa
The __________ is the serous membrane that covers most digestive organs.
(C) visceral peritoneum
(D) parietal peritoneum
From the esophagus to the anus, the walls of the alimentary canal have the same four basic tunics. The __________ is the outermost layer of the walls of the intraperitoneal organs.
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
(A) serosal lining
(B) lamina propria
(D) mucosal lining
From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
(A) serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa
(B) submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa
(C) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
(D) muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa
Which of the following does NOT correctly describe basic regulation of digestive activity?
(A) Short reflexes act locally in the GI tract.
(B) Digestive system effectors are smooth muscle and glands.
(C) pH, stretch, and osmolarity are some of the stimuli that can trigger digestive reflexes.
(D) The enteric nervous system is under conscious control.
Which of the following inhibits salivation?
(A) relaxing after a meal
(B) being stressed or frightened
(C) the sight or smell of food
(D) ingestion of spicy foods
How many total permanent teeth should an adult have, assuming none have been lost or removed?
Which teeth in the permanent dentition are best suited for cutting or nipping off pieces of food?
(D) premolars (bicuspids)
The deciduous dentition consists of __________ teeth.
Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.
(A) There are 27 primary teeth, and the molars are permanent.
(B) There are 24 primary teeth, and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months.
(C) There are 32 primary teeth, and by 36 months of age, most children have all 32.
(D) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age, most children have all 20.
Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
(A) The number of permanent teeth is always equal to the number of primary teeth.
(B) The number of upper permanent teeth is not equal to the number of lower permanent teeth.
(C) There are 27 permanent teeth, and the first molars are usually the last to emerge.
(D) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
T/F: Dentin anchors the tooth in place.
All of the following are true of swallowing (deglutition) except one. Select the statement that is NOT true of swallowing.
(A) The involuntary portion of swallowing takes place in the pharynx.
(B) The voluntary phase of swallowing takes place within the mouth.
(C) The epiglottis assists in propelling food into the trachea.
(D) The mouth, pharynx and esophagus all take part in swallowing.
T/F: The pharyngeal-esophageal phase of swallowing is involuntary and is controlled by the swallowing center in the thalamus and lower pons.
T/F: The soft palate reflexively opens the nasopharynx to allow the passage of food, which is now called a bolus.
T/F: When swallowing, the glottis covers the epiglottis.
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