Unit 7 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (51)
the layout of a city
reveals how different areas or segments of a city serve different purposes or functions within the city
rank size rule
a pattern of settlement of a country in which the population of city is a fraction of the largest city's population, based on the city's rank. Ex. the 10th largest city's population would be 1/10 the population of the largest city
A country's largest city-ranking atop urban hierarchy-sometimes the country's capital. Controls all aspects of a country's culture, economics, and politics
Second Urban Revolution
The historical transformation of a city accomplished by the industrial revolution which turned the city into an industrial center. Industrial Centers were often in close proximity to a power source. This Second Urban Revolution was made possible by the Second Agricultural Revolution. Due to rural to urban migration
absolute location; often chosen for is advantages in trade or defense or as a center for religious practice
suburb that develops into a city complete with all of the goods and services of a city.
a process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood
homes bought in many American suburbs with the intent of tearing them down and replacing them with much larger homes often referred to as McMansions
Also known as the urban elite, consisted of a group of descision makers and organizers who controlled the resources, the food supply, and often the lives of others.
make-shift housing settlements of recent migrants, often on the periphery of megacities in LDC's. Poor infrastructure and no government regulation
urban design movement that promotes "walkable" neighborhoods and began in the US in the 1980s..seeks to restore a civil realm to urban planning and sense of place to communtities
Peak Land Value Intersection
land price increases as one gets closer to the city center
Yangtzi River Valley
Urban hearth in China
Indus River Valley
the third of the six separate first urban hearths, dating back to 2200 BCE, a site where agriculture likely diffused; extended from across Pakistan and northwest India
Yellow River Valley
urban hearth in China
post industrial city
A city where manufacturing has declined and the focus of the city is service industries.
The movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern States to the South and Southwest regions (Sunbelt) of the United States.
Urban revitalization and Urban reform that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
Where a city is located based on the large surrounding area perspective. i.e relative location
Central Place Theory
Christoller's theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people (threshold) who are willing to travel farther (range).
bid rent theory
geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate goes up as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
A metropolitan area with a population in excess of 10 million.
Spaces of Consumption
Urban centers that are created as entertainment spaces, places where tourists can go to consume the products of media companies.
a city's region of influence based on the goods and services offered
Dominant cities in terms of their roles in the global political economy. They are centers of strategic control of the world economy. Alpha, Beta, Gamma, - depends on a city's trade area
unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning
Urban Realms Model
A model that suggests that cities are made up of small realms which are independent and self-sufficient urban areas
Legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas
process of banks, lawyers, and politicians drawing red lines around places on a map and creating discriminatory policies against those who live there.
the process by which lands that were previously outside of the urban environment become urbanized as people and businesses from the city move to these spaces
a large modern house that lacks architectural integrity
Developed by geographer T.G. McGee, a model showing similar land-use patterns among the medium-sized cities of Southeast Asia
the rehabilitation of houses in older neighborhoods
developed by Homer Hoyt in 1939: he discovered a twist on the concentric zone pattern, he believed the city developed in a series of sectors, and he based this model off of Chicago; the model grew out of observations that there were urban land-use zones of growth based on transportation routes; sectors radiated out from the Central Business District along particular transportation routes
the amount of people needed to support a particular good or service in Cristaller's Central Place Theory
the region of great cities (such as Ur and Babylon) located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Was the first hearth of agriculture, and the first evidence of cities was found there dating back to 3500 BCE.
The fifth urban hearth chronologically, dating back to 200 BCE- located in Mexico and the surrounding Central American countries to the south
Nile River Vally
Second hearth of urbanization. Dates back to 3200 bce. The strength of the nation was reflected by the architecture and feats of the area
Concentric Zone Model
A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center
Griffin Ford Model(Latin american city model)
A structural model of the South American city with a CBD, elite spine, and peripheral/disamenity zones outside the city
multiple nuclei model
a model that describes the layout of the city by suggesting that growth occurred independently around several major focal points
Borcherts Model of Urban Evolution
Borchert created this model in the 1960s to predict and explain the growth of cities in four phases of trransportation history: stage 1, the "sail wagon" era of 1790-1830; stage 2, the "iron horse" era of 1830-1870; stage 3, the "steel rail" epoch of 1870-1920; and stage 4, the current era of car and air travel that began after 1920.
a demographic and social process whereby people move from urban areas to rural areas
green space like parks built around urban areas to slow urban sprawl.
Central Business District
Historic city center. Began as the area that offered the most goods and services and over time has evolved into downtown hubs - bankers, lawyers, etc. in skyscrapers. Today less prominent for everyday items - big box retailers provide those things
social classes/hierarchy - rich/poor, haves/have nots, Caste system in India
Galactic City Model
A mini edge city that is connected to another city by beltways or highways - as seen in the urban realms model
a property which has the presence or potential to be a hazardous waste, pollutant or contaminant i.e. former: gas stations, dry cleaners
metropolitan statistical area
a large urban settlement that includes a city and its surrounding area - often its hinterland/trade area/ or functional region, over 50,000 people.
micropolitan statistical area
a small urban settlement that includes a small city and its surrounding area - often between 10,000 and 50,000 people.
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