Wissues India Test 2 Tough

vedism god of war and rainstorms, chief god
Mauryas rules largest Indian empire ever in 3rd century BC. Leader was Ashoka, who built roads, had administration, taxes, justice, tolerance, spread concept of dharma.
a playwright who wrote in Sanskrit in first 500 years AD, a golden age
means universal tolerance, declared by Akbar.
another attempt to bring together Hinduism and Islam, muslims who believed that the soul was in exile from God and longed to return. Key is loving God.
followers of the guru Nanak, emphasized a simple life, through this rebirth could be escaped, no castes, just an ethical life, peaceful farmers at first, then persecuted by Mughals
means pure, this is the type of religious order the Sikhs were transformed into by the guru gobind Singh after the persecutions.
the colony formed in 1696 by the east India company, first known as fort William,
Robert Clive
when English were challenged by the french in India, Clive stepped in and saved the British. He started in the company and transferred to its military, winning some spectacular victories. He was cunning. Bribed an uncle of the enemy at battle of plassey. Won and then made the uncle a ruler. Clive got rich but company went almost bankrupt.
Warren Hastings
in 1773 this guy becomes first governor-general of india, uses military force and cleverness to get the Brits more territory.
Lord Wellesley
fifth governor-general, conquered more territory along the eastern and Southern parts of India. East India company was mad that he spent so much on these campaigns that they sent him back to England. After this England continued to conquer more land until they had 1/3 of Indian territory.
the custom by which a widow is burned to death on the funeral pyre of her dead husband, made illegal in 1829. Indians mad.
Bahadur Shah II
sepoys declared themselves loyal to this blind 82 year old king of Delhi and former king of the whole Mughal empire. Eventually this guy is tried and exiled to Burma, where he died a few years later.
Indian councils act of 1909/Morely-Minto reforms
in which legislative councils could introduce bills, but not embarrass the government. Recognized the concept of separate electorates for Muslims.
Government of India act of 1919
in which the voting percentage of the adult male population was increased. Must own land or have fought in the armed forces to vote. Now 10% of the population can vote. Lots of separate electorates mean increased power of provinces, but British still retain most important powers.
Stafford Cripps
sent by Britain in 1942 to bolster Indian support for war effort in ww2. Cripps offered the indians eventual independence. He said that after the war they could talk about making a constitution, hoping that India would remain part of the british commonwealth. Unfortunately the plan broke down. He was also a part of the cabinet mission in 1946
Cabinet mission of march 1946
Three Brits come over to begin the cabinet mission and play the role of an honest broker between the congress party, Muslim league, unionist party, and Sikhs. Doesn't really work so Mountebatten kind of just declares India independent.
Allan Hume
a Scotsman who helped form the Indian national congress in 1885.
self rule, also encouraged by Tilak, he was jailed and riots ensued.
Reginald Dyer
brigadier-general who in 1919 ordered his troops to fire into a mass meeting. 379 killed and thousands wounded. Forced to retire but many British still liked him.
gaining rights through civil disobedience, as called by gandhi, he used this tactic in SA and later India
Muslim League
formed in 1906, this group strove to safeguard the interests and rights of Muslims in India. After 1937 losses it began a mass unity campaign, in 1940 it introduced the idea of pakistan. In 1946 the muslim league wins some more and is a more prominent force.
Direct Action Day
august 16, 1946, when Jinnah called for Muslims to show disapproval for Congress's actions. Rallies and some riots, 5000 dead. Gandhi helped to lessen violence.
Rajiv Gandhi
prime minister from 1985 to 1989, he was capitalist. Reduced taxes. Assassinated while campaigning for the 1991 elections.