Psy 203 Chapter 4 - Prenatal Dev
Terms in this set (44)
8-14 days; zygote divides through mitosis and forms blastocyst (hollow ball of cells) that attaches to uterine wall; zygote contains 46 chromosomes
2-8 weeks, Occurs when embryonic becomes specialized to serve a a specific function. Tissue: ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm.
9th week to birth
Length of Pregnancy
Duration is approximately 280 days (40 weeks) from onset of last normal menstrual period (LNMP) the generally accepted time is 38 weeks or 266 days.
Earliest a baby can be born healthy?
The organic process whereby a fertilized egg becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus of placental mammals.
The most dangerous journey...
10 days after conception. Embryo moves through fallopian tube while increasing in number of cells on it's way to implantation in the uterus.
the baby from fertilization to 8 weeks of development.
What percent of zygotes become living new born babies.
Miscariage; natural expulsion from the uterus of an embryo that cannot survive outside the womb. About 5% happen before 22 weeks.
a thickening produced by the pileup of cells moving inward at the blastoderm's midline, which runs along what will become the anterior-posterior axis.
A non invasive test used to outline the shape and determine the consistency of various organs and diagnose pregnancy; it can also be used to determine the exact position, size, and gender of the fetus and to identify some developmental anomalies.
Age of Viability
The age (about 22 weeks after conception) at which a fetus may survive outside the mother's uterus if specialized medical care is available.
As prenatal development progresses in humans from 10 weeks after conception to 41 weeks, the brain undergoes a similar progression in size, in the expansion of association cortex, and in the proliferation of fissures. The most critical stages of neural development occur during the first 30 weeks of fetal development.
Natural - 40%
IVF - 30%
A quick assessment of a newborn's body functioning. The baby's heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, color, and reflexes are given a score of 0, 1, or 2 twice-at one minute and five minutes after birth- and each time the total of all five scores is compared with the ideal score of 10 (which is rarely attained.)
A caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support for the mother before, during, and after childbirth.
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning.
A situation in which a certain teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level (the threshold).
Fetal Alcohol Syndrom
A group of problems in a child, including lower intellectual functioning, low birth weight, and irregularities in the hands and face, that result from excessive alcohol intake by the mother during pregnancy.
a body weight at birth of less than 5 1/2 pounds
Very Low Birthweight
a body weight at birth of less than 3 pounds, 5 ounces
Extremely Low Birthweight
a body weight at birth of less than 2 pounds, 3 ounces
Delivery after the 24th week, but before the 38th week
Small for gestational age
Infants weighing 90% OR LESS than average weight of other infants of the same gestation
A condition caused by brain damage around the time of birth and marked by lack of muscle control and paralysis especially in the limbs
Absence of oxygen
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
Preformed w/in 24-26 hours after birth. Tests neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
Pregnancy-related rituals or a cluster of symptoms experienced by some prospective fathers during pregnancy and childbirth
cooperation between a mother and a father based on their mutual commitment to their children
When a mother has a sense of inadequately and depression after giving birth. 8-15% of women experience it.
The strong, loving connection that forms as parents hold, examine, and feed their newborn.
When the newborn lies between the mother's breasts, skin-to-skin, listening to her heartbeat and feeling her body heat.
What are the three critical developments in the germinal period?
1. Rapid cell division
First two weeks.
What events begin and end the embryonic period?
It becomes a distinct being and the Primitive Streak forms.
What Occurs about halfway throughout he fetal period?
The nervous system becomes responsive and at 22 weeks the fetus is Viable.
Why does pregnancy continue months after the fetus could live outside the uterus?
Continued development of organs and the brain as well as bond between mother and child.
Why has the APGAR scale increased newborns' survival rate?
A quick assessment of newborn's health. The baby's color, heart rate, reflexes, muscle tone and respiration are given a score of 0,1 or 2, at one minute and again at five minutes.
Why has the rate of cesarean sections increased?
Because if a mother has had one it is automatic protocol the second time to reduce the risk of a ruptured uterus. Also culture and cohorts influence the rate.
Why are developmentalists concerned that surgery is often part of birth?
If c-sections are performed before labor begins it can cause serious issues.
A technique of prenatal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus, is analyzed to detect certain genetic and congenital defects in the fetus.
sampling & testing of the chorion for fetal abnormalities
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