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23 terms

Anatomy Science Olympiad Respiratory system

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Basic Functions of the Respiratory system
1.provides oxygen to the blood stream and
removes carbon dioxide
2. enables sound production or vocalization as
expired air passes over the vocal chords
3. enables protective and reflexive non-
breathing air movements such as coughing
and sneezing, to keep the air passages clear
4. control of Acid-Base balance
5. control of blood pH
Coughing
Deep inspiration followed by a closure of the glottis. The forceful expiration that results abruptly opens the glottis, sending a blast of air through the upper respiratory tract
Sneezing
Similar to a cough, except that the forceful expired air is directed primarily through the nasal cavity.
Sighing
Deep, prolonged inspiration followed by a rapid, forceful expiration.
Yawning
Deep inspiration through a widely opened mouth. The inspired air is usually held for a short period before sudden expiration.
Laughing
Deep inspiration followed by a rapid convulsive expiration. Air movements are accompanied by expressive facial distortions.
Crying
Similar to laughing but the glottis remains open during entire expiration and different facial muscles are involved.
Hiccuping
Spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm while the glottis is closed, producing a sharp inspiratory sound.
Inspiration
a very active process that requires input of energy
Air flows into the lungs when the thoracic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. The diaphragm moves downward and flattens while the intercostal muscles contract.
Expiration
a passive process that takes advantage of the recoil properties of elastic fibers. Air is forced out of the lungs when the thoracic pressure rises above atmospheric pressure. The diaphragm and expiratory muscles relax.
Pulmonary Ventilation
Inspiration and expiration.
External Respiration
Movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood. Movement of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs.
Transport of Respiratory Gases
Transport of oxygen from the lugs to the tissues. Transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.
Internal Respiration
Movement of oxygen from blood to the tissue cells.
Apnea
temporary cessation of breathing (one or more skipped breaths)
Dyspnea
labored, gasping breathing; shortness of breath
Eupnea
Normal, relaxed, quiet breathing
Hyperpnea
increased rate and depth of breathing in response to exercise, pain, or other conditions.
Hyperventilation
increased pulmonary ventilation in excess of metabolic demand.
Hypoventiation
reduced pulmonary ventilation.
Orthopnea
Dyspnea that occurs when a person is lying down.
Respiratory arrest
permanent cessation of breathing.
Tachypnea
accelerated respiration.