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Chapter 10 Sec 1 Medterms

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heart
muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist, located behind the sternum (breast bone) and between the lungs. Pumping action circulates blood through the body. Consists of two upper chambers, the right atrium and left atrium (atria), and two lower chambers (right and left ventricles). The right atrium receives blood returning from the body through the veins; the left atrium receives blood from the lungs. The left ventricle pumps blood through the arteries from the heart back to the body tissue; the right ventricle pumps blood through the arteries from the heart back to the body tissue; the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs. The atrial septum separates the atria and the ventricular septum separates the ventricles.
atrioventricular valves
Consist of the tricuspid and mitral valves, which lie between the right atrium and the right ventricle and the left atrium and left ventricle. Valves of the heart keep blood flowing in one direction.
semilunar valves
pulmonary and aortic valves located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and between the left ventricle and the aorta.
pericardium
two-layer sac surrounding the heart, consisting of an external fibrous and an internal serous layer. The serous layer secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart. It consists of two layers, one lining the fibrous pericardium and one covering the heart, called epicardium.
epicardium
(1 of 3 layers of the heart) covers the heart.
myocardium
(1 of 3 layers of the heart) middle, thick, muscular layer
endocardium
(1 of 3 layers of the heart) inner lining of the heart.
blood vessels
tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body.
arteries
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. All arteries, with the exception of the pulmonary artery, carry oxygen and other nutrients form the heart to the body cells. The pulmonary artery, in contrast, carries carbon dioxide and other waste products from the heart to the lungs.
arterioles
smallest arteries.
aorta
largest artery in the body, originating at the left ventricle and descending through the thorax and abdomen.
veins
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. All veins, with the exception of the pulmonary veins, carry blood containing carbon dioxide and other waste products. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
venules
smallest veins
venae cavae
largest veins in the body. The inferior vena cava carries blood to the heart from body parts below the diaphragm, and the superior vena cava returns the blood to the heart from the upper part of the body.
capillaries
microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules. Materials are passed between the blood and tissue through the capillary walls.
Blood
composed of plasma and formed elements, such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes (platelets)
Plasma
clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended. Plasma is approximately 90% water and comprises approximately 55% of total blood volume.
Erythrocytes
red blood cells that carry oxygen, develop in bone marrow.
Leukocytes
white blood cells that combat infection and respond to inflammation; there are five types of white blood cells.
Platelets (thrombocytes)
one of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for aiding in the clotting process.
Serum
clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that remains after a clot has formed.
Lymph
transparent, colorless, tissue fluid that enters the lymphatic system. Contains lymphocytes and monocytes and flows in a one-way direction to the heart. (similar to blood plasma)
Lymphatic vessels
similar to veins, lymphatic vessels transport lymph from body tissues to the chest, where it enters the cardiovascular system. The vessels begin as capillaries spread throughout the body then merge into larger tubes that eventually becomes ducts in the chest. provides one-way flow for lymph.enters through the veins into the circulatory system.
Lymph nodes
small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue, may be singular or grouped together along the path of the lymph vessels. Filter lymph and produce lymphocytes.
Spleen
located in the left side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and diaphragm. Largest lymphatic organ in body as an adult. blood Where blood is cleansed from microorganisms. (stores blood, destroys old red blood cells)
Thymus gland
one of the primary lymphatic organs, it is located anterior to aorta and posterior to sternum. One of the primary lymphatic organs plays an important role in the development of the body's immune system, particularly from infancy to puberty.around puberty the gland atrophies into connective tissue
angi/o
vessel (usually refers to blood vessel)
aort/o
aorta
arteri/o
artery
atri/o
atrium
cardi/o
heart
lymph/o
lymph, lymph tissue
lymphaden/o
lymph node
myel/o
bone marrow
phleb/o, ven/o
vein
plasm/o
plasma
splen/o
spleen
thym/o
thymus gland
valv/o, valvul/o
valve
ventricul/o
ventricle
ather/o
yellowish, fatty plaque
ech/o
sound
electr/o
electricity, electrical activity
isch/o
deficiency, blockage
therm/o
heat
thromb/o
clot
brady
slow
ac
pertaining to
apheresis
removal
graph
instrument used to record; record
penia
abnormal reduction in number
poiesis
formation
sclerosis
hardening
angioma
tumor composed of blood vessels
angiostenosis
narrowing of a blood vessel
aortic stenosis
narrowing, pertaining to aorta
arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
artherosclerosis
hardening of fatty plaque
bradycardia
condition of a slow heart (rate less than 60 BPM)
cardiomegaly
enlargement of the heart.
cardiomyopathy
disease of the heart muscle
endocarditis
inflammation of the inner (lining) of the heart (particularly heart valves)
ischemia
deficiency of blood (flow)
myocarditis
inflammation of the muscle of the heart
pericarditis
inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart.
phlebitis
inflammation of a vein.
polyarteritis
inflammation of many (sites in the) arteries
tachycardia
condition of a rapid heart(rate of more than 100 BPM)
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of a vein associated with a clot.
valvulitis
inflammation of a valve (of the heart)
hematoma
tumor of blood (collection of blood resulting from a broken blood vessel)
multiple myeloma
tumors of the bone marrow
pancytopenia
abnormal reduction of all (blood) cells
thrombosis
abnormal condition of a (blood) clot
thrombus
(blood) clot (attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein)
lymphadenitis
inflammation of the lymph nodes.
lymphadenopathy
disease of the lymph nodes (characterized by abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes with an infection or malignancy)
lymphoma
tumor of lymphatic tissue (malignant)
splenomegaly
enlargement of the spleen
thymoma
tumor of the thymus gland
acute coronary syndrome (ACS)
sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction
aneurysm
ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall
angina pectoris
chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle
arrhythmia
any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern.
atrial fibrillation(AFib)
a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid electrical impulse in the atria. The atria quiver instead of contracting, causing irregular ventricular response and the ejection of a reduced amount of blood. The blood that remains in the atria becomes static, increasing the risk of clot formation, which may lead to a stroke. Two types of AFib are paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) which is intermittent and chronic atrial fibrillation, which is sustained.
cardiac arrest
sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
cardiac tamponade
acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity.
coarctation of the aorta
congenital cardiac condition characterized by a narrowing of the aorta.
congenital heart disease
heart abnormality present at birth
congenital heart failure (CHF)
inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen. Coronary artery disease is a common cause of heart failure.
coronary artery disease (CAD)
a condition that reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries to the myocardium, denying the myocardial tissue oxygen to function fully. Most often caused by coronary atherosclerosis.
coronary occlusion
obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from atherosclerosis. Can lead to acute myocardial infarction.
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body. Most often occurs in the lower extremities. A clot can break off and travel to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
hypertensive heart disease (HHD)
disorder of the heart caused by persistent high blood pressure.
intermittent claudication
pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in peripheral arterial disease.
mitral valve stenosis
a narrowing the mitral valve from scarring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever.
myocardial infarction (MI)
death (necrosis) of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (aka heart attack)
peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
disease of the arteries in the arms and legs, resulting in narrowing or complete obstruction of the artery. This is caused most commonly by atherosclerosis, but occasionally by inflammatory disease, emboli or thrombus formation.
rheumatic heart disease
damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever.
varicose veins
distended or tortuous veins usually found in the lower extremities.
anemia
reduction in the number of red blood cells. Anemia may be caused by blood loss or decrease in the production or increase in the destruction of red blood cells.
embolus
blood clot or foreign material, such as air or fat, that enters the bloodstream and moves until it lodges at another point in the circulation.
hemophilia
inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII.
leukemia
malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow.
sepsis
a condition in which pathogenic microorganisms, usually bacteria, enter the bloodstream, causing a systemic inflammatory response to the infection. (also called septicemia)
Hodgkin disease
malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue characterized by a progressive enlargement of the lymph node usually beginning in the cervical nodes.
infectious mononucleosis
an acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by swollen lymph nodes. sore throat, fatigue, and fever. The disease affects mostly young people and is usually transmitted by saliva.