muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist, located behind the sternum (breast bone) and between the lungs. Pumping action circulates blood through the body. Consists of two upper chambers, the right atrium and left atrium (atria), and two lower chambers (right and left ventricles). The right atrium receives blood returning from the body through the veins; the left atrium receives blood from the lungs. The left ventricle pumps blood through the arteries from the heart back to the body tissue; the right ventricle pumps blood through the arteries from the heart back to the body tissue; the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs. The atrial septum separates the atria and the ventricular septum separates the ventricles.
Consist of the tricuspid and mitral valves, which lie between the right atrium and the right ventricle and the left atrium and left ventricle. Valves of the heart keep blood flowing in one direction.
pulmonary and aortic valves located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and between the left ventricle and the aorta.
two-layer sac surrounding the heart, consisting of an external fibrous and an internal serous layer. The serous layer secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart. It consists of two layers, one lining the fibrous pericardium and one covering the heart, called epicardium.
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. All arteries, with the exception of the pulmonary artery, carry oxygen and other nutrients form the heart to the body cells. The pulmonary artery, in contrast, carries carbon dioxide and other waste products from the heart to the lungs.
largest artery in the body, originating at the left ventricle and descending through the thorax and abdomen.
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. All veins, with the exception of the pulmonary veins, carry blood containing carbon dioxide and other waste products. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
largest veins in the body. The inferior vena cava carries blood to the heart from body parts below the diaphragm, and the superior vena cava returns the blood to the heart from the upper part of the body.
microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules. Materials are passed between the blood and tissue through the capillary walls.
composed of plasma and formed elements, such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes (platelets)
clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended. Plasma is approximately 90% water and comprises approximately 55% of total blood volume.
white blood cells that combat infection and respond to inflammation; there are five types of white blood cells.
one of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for aiding in the clotting process.
transparent, colorless, tissue fluid that enters the lymphatic system. Contains lymphocytes and monocytes and flows in a one-way direction to the heart. (similar to blood plasma)
similar to veins, lymphatic vessels transport lymph from body tissues to the chest, where it enters the cardiovascular system. The vessels begin as capillaries spread throughout the body then merge into larger tubes that eventually becomes ducts in the chest. provides one-way flow for lymph.enters through the veins into the circulatory system.
small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue, may be singular or grouped together along the path of the lymph vessels. Filter lymph and produce lymphocytes.
located in the left side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and diaphragm. Largest lymphatic organ in body as an adult. blood Where blood is cleansed from microorganisms. (stores blood, destroys old red blood cells)
one of the primary lymphatic organs, it is located anterior to aorta and posterior to sternum. One of the primary lymphatic organs plays an important role in the development of the body's immune system, particularly from infancy to puberty.around puberty the gland atrophies into connective tissue
disease of the lymph nodes (characterized by abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes with an infection or malignancy)
acute coronary syndrome (ACS)
sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction
chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle
a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid electrical impulse in the atria. The atria quiver instead of contracting, causing irregular ventricular response and the ejection of a reduced amount of blood. The blood that remains in the atria becomes static, increasing the risk of clot formation, which may lead to a stroke. Two types of AFib are paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) which is intermittent and chronic atrial fibrillation, which is sustained.
sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity.
congenital heart failure (CHF)
inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen. Coronary artery disease is a common cause of heart failure.
coronary artery disease (CAD)
a condition that reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries to the myocardium, denying the myocardial tissue oxygen to function fully. Most often caused by coronary atherosclerosis.
obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from atherosclerosis. Can lead to acute myocardial infarction.
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body. Most often occurs in the lower extremities. A clot can break off and travel to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in peripheral arterial disease.
mitral valve stenosis
a narrowing the mitral valve from scarring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever.
myocardial infarction (MI)
death (necrosis) of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (aka heart attack)
peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
disease of the arteries in the arms and legs, resulting in narrowing or complete obstruction of the artery. This is caused most commonly by atherosclerosis, but occasionally by inflammatory disease, emboli or thrombus formation.
rheumatic heart disease
damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever.
reduction in the number of red blood cells. Anemia may be caused by blood loss or decrease in the production or increase in the destruction of red blood cells.
blood clot or foreign material, such as air or fat, that enters the bloodstream and moves until it lodges at another point in the circulation.
inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII.
malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow.
a condition in which pathogenic microorganisms, usually bacteria, enter the bloodstream, causing a systemic inflammatory response to the infection. (also called septicemia)
malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue characterized by a progressive enlargement of the lymph node usually beginning in the cervical nodes.