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Brain Quiz - Reighlter April 12th 2019
Terms in this set (61)
4 Main divisions of the brain
Cerebrum, Diencephalon, Cerebellum, Brain Stem
Three connective tissue membranes covering and protecting CNS (brain and spinal cord).
Hard, outermost, double layered membrane.
Weblike, middle layer.
Filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
- Similar to blood plasma.
- Contains less proteins and more vitamin C.
- Formed by blood by the choroid plexus.
- Forms watery cushions and protects nervous tissue from trauma.
Clings to the surface of the brain and spinal cord.
Processing of nerve impulses related to the senses ( Touch, Pain, Taste, Pressure, and Temperature).
Responsible for hearing, memory, meaning and lanuage, play a role in emotions (hippocampus) and learning; interpreting and processing auditory stimuli.
Emotions, reasoning, planning, movement (fine motor skills), and parts of speech, creativity, judgement, and problem solving.
Recieves and processes visual information.
- Central Sulcus
- Responsilbe for our ability to speak.
Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Pineal Gland
Recieves "stimuli" from all senses, information is sorted and "edited"
Control center for any autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system - Connections with structures of the endrocrince (glands) and nervous systems enable the hypothalamus to play a vital role in maintaining homeostasis.
- Medulla Oblongata
(Epithalamus) = secretes the hormone melatonin to regulate sleep/wake patterns.
- Most advanced of the regions of the brain.
- Regulates body temperature, motor control, and sleep cycles
- Influences hearing, visions, and arousal.
- This vital region is responsible for controlling all of of the responses releted to sensoy information and regulating the body actions to those responses.
- Helps in transferring of messages between various parts of the brain and the spinal cord.
- Relay center between the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum.
Automatic relex center for maintaining homeostasis ...
vomit, heart and blood vessel function, breathing, swallowing, sneezing, digestion.
Involved with processing precise timing and patterns of skeletal muscle contraction for coordination movements like driving, typing, playing an instrument ...
- 11% of brain mass
- occurs subconsciously
- arbor vitae - white matter
- cognitive -> function to recognize and predict sequences of events so it may adjust for complex movement.
A thick band of nerve fibers that transfers motor, sensory, and cognitive information between the brain cerebral hemispheres (L&R)
relay for olfactory (smell) pathway
Where the optic nerve crosses over the opposite side of the brain.
Secretes many essential hormones for growth and sexual maturation.
Connects the Hippocampus (memory) to the Hypothalamus (homestasis).
Functional Brain Systems
limbic part of brain
Limbic part of the brain
Cerebrum and diencephalon emotional system:
Where memories are stored - has a rich supply of estrogen and progesterone.
Located in temporal lobe.
Reticular Formation RAS
Filters out sensory stimuli as unimportant ~ 99% (LSD interferes with this)
the storage and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced
Sensory Memory (SM)
Just long enough to be transferred into short term memory. Sensory Memories allows individuals to retain impressions of sensory information after the orginal stimilus ceased.
Short-Term Memory (STM)
Lasting for few seconds or hours.
- Preliminary steps to long-term memory.
- Limited to seven or eight "chucks" of infomation.
- Limitless capacity.
- Ability to retrive the information declines with age.
- memory bank changes with time shortterm memory is "holding bin" for data to move into long-term memory.
Factors that affect information to move from Short-term to long-term memory:
- Emotional state ="shocking things" - norepinephrine is involved.
- rehearsal = repeat or rehearse.
- association with new information to "old" information.
- Automatic memory = when listening to a lecturer, the patterns of the tie is the recoreded into memory.
- Measure electrical potentials
differnences between various cortical areas of brain.
- Records patterns of brain waves.
- Regular and rhythmic
- Low amplitude
- Relaxed state of wakefulness
- Rhythmic but not as regular as alpha waves.
- Higher frequency
- Mentally alert or concentrating on something
- Irregular electrical signals.
- common in children but abnormal in adults.
- "day dreaming"
- High amplitude
- Seen during deep sleep and during anesthesia.
- In awake adults they indicate brain damage.
Mulitple Sclerosis (MS)
An autoimmune demyelinating disease that hardens the myelin sheath which is called sclerosis.
Affects: Eyes, speech, and other skeletal muscle.
Body part "Falls Asleep"
Cold or continous pressure interrupt blood circulation to the neurons and impair conduction of impulses.
- Cerebullum is damaged.
- Movements become clumsy and disorganized.
- Victims appear to be drunk.
- Inflammation of the meninges.
Can be bacterical or viral and spread to brain.
CSF accumulates and exerts pressure on the brain.
"Water on brain"
Neuromuscular disability where voluntary muscles are poorly controlled or paralyzed as a result of brain damage.
- Temporary lack of oxygen in birth delivery.
- Trauma to brain.
- dizzy, headache, lose consciousness briefly.
- No permanent damage.
Marked tissue damage.
Brain stem contusion causes a coma.
Indicates inadequate blood flow to brain due to low blood pressure.
Total nonresponsiveness to stimulation for a extended period of time.
Irreparable damage to brain life support to restore vitality to other parts.
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVAs)
Stroke; blood circulation to brain is blocked by a blood clot or ruptured blood vessel and vital tissue dies.
- Third leading cause of death in the United States.
Inflammation of the spinal cord
- Vertebrae forms incompletely around spinal cord.
- Exposing the spinal cord to the outside of the body.
- Paralyzed from vertebrae down.
Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
A progressive disease resulting in dementia (mental deterioration) caused by plaques (beta-amyloid peptide) to act as neurotoxins affect the myelin sheath in brain.
- Affects people in their 50-60s.
- Results from a degeneration of dopamine.
- Releasing neurons of the midbrain.
- Symptoms are uncontrolled movemnets
- A human genetic that strikes during middle age and leads to massive degeneration of basal nuclei and cerebral cortex.
- Symptoms of chorea (continous flapping movements).
- Dopomine not enough.
Occurs because the abrupt change in temperature in the tissue at the roof of your mouth causes blood vessels to quickly swell in effort to warm the area back up.
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