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What is related to a star's surface tempurature?





Giants or Supergiants

What are the biggest stars?


What is a medium size star?

White Dwarf Stars

What is a small- medium star?

Neutron Star

What is the smallest star?

chemical composition

can use a spectrograph to identify the chemical elements in a star


depends on a star's size, composition, temperature and distance from Earth.

Absolute Brightness

brightness the star would have if it were a standard distance from Earth ( actual brightness)

Apparent Brightness

star's brightness as seen from the Earth.


the apparent change in position of an object when you look at it from different places used to measure distances to nearby stars

Hertzsprung- Russell Diagram

a graph that plots absolute magnitude versus temperature of a star.


large cloud of gas and dust; gravity pulls gas and dust together, temp. increases


beginning stage, nuclear fusion begins

Main Sequence

hydrogen changes to helium, may last for billions of years depending on mass.

Red Giant

star's outer surface cools, expands and becomes red


final stage depends on mass

low mass

red giant collapses and becomes a white dwarf.

medium mass

forms planetary nebula when a white dwarf

massive mass

explodes- supernova, then may become a very dence neutron star or an extremely dense black hole.


smaller and denser than white dwarfs


spinning neutron star- gives off radio waves

Black hole

an object with gravity so strong that nothing escapees.


What is 15th brightest star in the sky?

1000 light years away

How far is Antares from Earth?


a group of stars that form a pattern.


How many constellations are accepted worldwide?

for navigation and calendar

What were constellations used for?


5 constellations seen throughout the year, rotate around Polaris

Ursa Major

(Great Bear) contains the Big Dipper; stars at end of its bowl points ot Polaris

Ursa Minor

(Little Bear) little dipper; polaris is at end of its handle


The Queen


The King


The Dragon

Zodiacal Constellations

band of 12 constellations moving across the sky throughout the year.

Winter Constellatioons

Orion, Canis Major, Taurus, Gemini

Binary Stars

double stars, contain 2 stars

Open Cluster

loose, disorganized in appearance. contain < 1000 or equal too.

Globular Cluster

large groupings of older stars; may contain > or equal too 1 million stars.


huge systems of billions of stars, star clusters, dust, and gas held together by gravity

Spiral Galaxies

disk-shaped with bulge in the center and spiral arms

Milky Way Galaxy

our sun is on one arm

Elliptical Galaxy

slightly flattened spheres with bright centers, very little gas and dust, contain only old stars.

Irregular Galaxies

no regular shape, many stars and great clouds of gas and dust

Large Magellanic and Small Magellanic Cloud

Name 2 Irregular Galaxies


active young galaxies with giant black holes at their centers.

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