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48 terms

Stars, Galaxies, Constellations

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color
What is related to a star's surface tempurature?
hot
Blue
Medium
Yellow
Coolest
Red
Giants or Supergiants
What are the biggest stars?
Sun
What is a medium size star?
White Dwarf Stars
What is a small- medium star?
Neutron Star
What is the smallest star?
chemical composition
can use a spectrograph to identify the chemical elements in a star
Magnitude
depends on a star's size, composition, temperature and distance from Earth.
Absolute Brightness
brightness the star would have if it were a standard distance from Earth ( actual brightness)
Apparent Brightness
star's brightness as seen from the Earth.
Parallax
the apparent change in position of an object when you look at it from different places used to measure distances to nearby stars
Hertzsprung- Russell Diagram
a graph that plots absolute magnitude versus temperature of a star.
Nebula
large cloud of gas and dust; gravity pulls gas and dust together, temp. increases
Protostar
beginning stage, nuclear fusion begins
Main Sequence
hydrogen changes to helium, may last for billions of years depending on mass.
Red Giant
star's outer surface cools, expands and becomes red
Death
final stage depends on mass
low mass
red giant collapses and becomes a white dwarf.
medium mass
forms planetary nebula when a white dwarf
massive mass
explodes- supernova, then may become a very dence neutron star or an extremely dense black hole.
Neutron
smaller and denser than white dwarfs
Pulsar
spinning neutron star- gives off radio waves
Black hole
an object with gravity so strong that nothing escapees.
Antares
What is 15th brightest star in the sky?
1000 light years away
How far is Antares from Earth?
Constellations
a group of stars that form a pattern.
88
How many constellations are accepted worldwide?
for navigation and calendar
What were constellations used for?
Circumpolar
5 constellations seen throughout the year, rotate around Polaris
Ursa Major
(Great Bear) contains the Big Dipper; stars at end of its bowl points ot Polaris
Ursa Minor
(Little Bear) little dipper; polaris is at end of its handle
Cassiopeia
The Queen
Cepheus
The King
Draco
The Dragon
Zodiacal Constellations
band of 12 constellations moving across the sky throughout the year.
Winter Constellatioons
Orion, Canis Major, Taurus, Gemini
Binary Stars
double stars, contain 2 stars
Open Cluster
loose, disorganized in appearance. contain < 1000 or equal too.
Globular Cluster
large groupings of older stars; may contain > or equal too 1 million stars.
Galaxies
huge systems of billions of stars, star clusters, dust, and gas held together by gravity
Spiral Galaxies
disk-shaped with bulge in the center and spiral arms
Milky Way Galaxy
our sun is on one arm
Elliptical Galaxy
slightly flattened spheres with bright centers, very little gas and dust, contain only old stars.
Irregular Galaxies
no regular shape, many stars and great clouds of gas and dust
Large Magellanic and Small Magellanic Cloud
Name 2 Irregular Galaxies
Quasars
active young galaxies with giant black holes at their centers.