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Final Review Chapters 14,15,16,17
Terms in this set (68)
What location is the oxygen exchange between air in the lungs and the blood made?
What oral agent is used to treat asthma?
What delivers liquid solution via inhaled mist generated by a machine?
What drug does not have bronchodilation effects?
What common side effect of inhaled corticosteroids is experienced?
What inhaler should a patient use for quick relief from an asthma attack?
What medication must be inhaled on a regular basis to have a significant long-term effect on asthma symptoms?
What TB agent has the advantage of being one of the shortest duration therapies but which can also make patients fell like they have the flu?
What mainfests effects on the respiratory system but is in fact a genetic disease that affects exocrine glands and their ability to transport chloride across cell membranes?
Cystic Fibrosis (CF)Most
What drug is a smoking cessation that contains nicotine and is available OTC?
What is used as needed every 4-6 hours, whereas what are used twice a day for bronchodilation effects?
short-acting beta agonists, long-acting beta agonists
Name three pancreatic enzymes contained in supplements used to treat the GI symptoms of CF.
lipase, protease, and amylase
How long must a patient with TB take drug therapy to eradicate the disease?
6 months to 1-2 years
Most patients with asthma need use two inhalers:
Some patients who need both may use only one inhaler that combines these active drugs. Name at least two brand/generic for these drugs?
inhaled corticosteriod, short-acting beta agonist; Symbicort (budesonide/formoterol) and Advair (fluticasone,salmeterol)
How many times a day are inhaled corticosteroids are typically used?
2 times a day
What is the one exception to the rule of inhaled corticosteroids and how many times a day?
Azmacort taken 3-4 times a day
Name the most prominent and preventable risk factor for developing COPD?
In which part of the GI tract does the majority of nutrient and medication absorption occur?
What best describes peristalsis?
coordinated muscle contraction along the GI tract
How does psyllium and other bulk-forming laxatives work to prevent constipation?
contains fiber, which cannot be absorbed, and drawing water into the GI tract
What drug is useful in treating nausea and vomiting due to motion sickness and vertigo?
hydroxyzine (Vistaril, Atarax)
What medication is available in both oral and IV dosage forms and used in both outpatient and inpatient ulcer prevention?
What best describes an enema?
solution that is administered rectally to clear the bowels
What drug should be kept in the refrigerator?
What drug is a potent and costly medication for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy?
What drug would you place an auxiliary label for drowsiness?
promethazine (Phenergan), hydroxyzine (Vistaril), granisetron (Granisol, Kytril, Sancuso)
What drug is available as a transdermal patch?
scopolamine (Transderm scop, Scopace)
Distinguish the OTC and Rx strengths of omeprazole and lansoprazole.
Omeprazole (Prilosec): Adults- 20-40mg/day, Kids-5-20mg/day
What is the only drug for GI problems that is a controlled substance?
List the classes of laxative agents from quickest to slowest onset of action.
Bowel prep (Osmotic) laxatives, Stimulant laxatives, Stool Softeners, Bulk-forming laxatives
Oral laxative products work much faster than suppositories and enemas?
List the brand/generic names of the most expensive class of antiemetics, what class is this?
Serotonin Type 3 (5-HT3) Receptor Antagonists
*granisetron (Granisol, Kytril, Sancuso)
List the drug classes used for treating GERD.
Sucralfate, Bismuth Subsalyicate (Pepto-Bismol), Antacids, PPIs, and H2 Blockers
What is considered obesity?
ABW > 150% IBW
What condition is where caloric intake is adequate but protein intake is deficient?
Deficiency in which vitamin can cause rickets (bone softening)?
Which vitamin is needed to produce clotting factors and is used to reverse the effects of warfarin?
Excess of which trace element is associated with hypothyroidism?
Obesity can be treated by:
caloric restriction, increased exercise and prescription anorexiants
Side effects of orlistat include:
What prescription is only available by Rx as a controlled substance?
What nutrition is given through an IV?
What drug works by blocking enzymes withing the digestive tract from breaking down fat so that fat can be absorbed?
orlistat (Xenical, Alli)
Describe the difference between enteral and parenteral nutrition?
Enteral: feeding a patient through a tube into the GI tract
Parenteral: feeding a patient through an IV when the digestive tract cannot be used at all.
Why is enteral nutrition preferred?
because it mimics the act of eating meals
What vitamin is produced in the skin when exposed to sunlight?
Name the fat soluble vitamins and a toxicity that could result from an excess of each.
Vitamin A: nausea, vomiting, vertigo, blurry vision, hairloss
Vitamin D: high blood calcium and kidney stones
Vitamin E: stroke
Vitamin K: anemia and jaundice
Deficiency occurs more rapidly with the fat-soluble vitamins than with the water-soluble vitamins.
Describe the similarities and differences between Alli and Xencial.
orlistat (Alli <OTC>, Xenical <Rx>)
Alli: BMI is overweight but not obese
Xenical: BMI is over 30
What condition is a deficiency of the steroid hormone?
What gland makes glucagon?
Name a drug that is used to treat Type 1 diabetes.
Which trace element is necessary for production of the thyroid hormone?
What drug has the predominant side effect of stomach upset and diarrhea that can be relieved by taking it with food?
What is the route of administration for insulin?
Which type if insulin is injected ten minutes prior to meals and lasts up to two hours?
What drug contains two agents, both of which can cause hypoglycemia?
glimepiride and insulin lispro
Which drug works by stimulating beta cells in the pancreas to produce insulin?
Which medication is an SC injection given once a day for diabetes?
What is type 1?
autoimmune process that destroys the islet cells within the pancreas,impairing and eliminating the ability to make insulin
What is type 2?
multifactorial disorder causing high blood glucose where the pancreas still produces insulin but does not work as well as it should.
Why can't patients with type 1 diabetes use oral medication to treat their condition?
the protein structure is denatured and deactivated by stomach acid before it reaches the bloodstream, so they must learn to self-inject insulin into the SC of their skin to receive their dose into the bloodstream
Vials of insulin expire when at room temperature?
How should insulin be stored?
in the refrigerator
When will insulin that is kept in the refrigerator expire?
on the expiration date or date on package
What is it called when blood glucose drops below the normal range?
What # is blood sugar considered too low?
List five potential symptoms of low blood glucose a patient may exhibit.
shakiness, dizziness, sweating, headache, irritability, confusion, vision changes and hunger
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