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Anatomy and Physiology: Exam One
Terms in this set (63)
Atoms and molecules - DNA
Molecules join to form cells, the smallest living units in the body.
Groups of cells and material that work together to perform a function
Two or more tissues joining together for a specific function and have a specific shape
Consists of related organs that have a common function
Any individual, all parts of the body functioning together
All chemical processes in the body
The breakdown of complex chemical substances into similar to components
The building up of complex chemical substances from smaller more simpler components
Body's ability to detect and respond to changes
Motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and tiny structures inside cells.
An increase in body size that results from an increase in the size of existing cells, an increase in the number of cells, or both.
The development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state.
An example can be stem cells.
(1) Formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair and/ or replacement.
(2) The production of a new individual
The maintenance of relatively stable conditions in the body's internal environment. It occurs because of the ceaseless interplay of the body's many regulatory systems.
Reverses a change in a controlled condition, an example is when blood pressure is too high and the body figures out a way to decrease it. Goes back to normal situation.
Tends to strengthen or reinforce a change in one of the body's controlled conditions, an example is when giving birth, the body supports the situation so that it can go through it fully till it is over.
Non-homeostatic which is keeping body in a position that is not normal.
Bond between ions with opposite charges, loss or gain electrons
Atoms share electrons instead of losing them
Positively charged ion (ionic bond)
Negatively charged ion (ionic bond)
When two or more atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form new and larger molecules
Split up large molecules into smaller atoms, ions, or molecules
Many bodily reactions consist of these - both synthesis and decomposition reactions.
The products can revert to the original reactants
Always parallel; when one substance is oxidized, another is reduced at the same time.
Always contain carbon, usually contain hydrogen, and always have covalent bonds. Most are large molecules, many made up of long carbon atom chains.
Usually lack carbon and are structurally simple. Their molecules also have only a few atoms and cannot be used by cells to perform complicated biological functions.
A solution's acidity or alkalinity is expressed on the pH scale, which extends from 0 to 14.
0-6 Acidic (Higher H+ concentration)
Function to convert strong acids or bases into weak acids or bases.
Carbohydrates function mainly as a source of chemical energy for generating ATP needed to drive metabolic reactions. include sugars, glycogen, starches, and cellulose.
Type of fat, multiple kinds, include fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, and other lipids.
Proteins have many roles in the body and are largely responsible for the structure of body tissues. Some proteins work as "motors" to drive muscle contraction. Antibodies are proteins that defend against invading microbes. Some hormones that regulate homeostasis also are proteins.
Proteins that speed up most biochemical reactions.
A flexible yet sturdy barrier that surrounds and contains the cytoplasm of a cell.
Functions of the Plasma Membrane
1. Acts as a barrier separating the inside and outside of the cell.
2. Controls substance flow in and out of the cell.
3. Helps identify the cell to other cells
4. Participates in intercellular signaling
Cellular energy is used to drive the substance "uphill" against its concentration or electrical gradient. The cellular energy used is usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate.
A substance moves down its concentration or electrical gradient to cross the membrane using only its own kinetic energy (energy of motion). Kinetic energy is intrinsic to the particles that are moving.
Covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts; it also forms glands. This tissue allows the body to interact with both its internal and external environments.
Protects and supports the body and its organs. Various types of connective tissues bind organs together, store energy reserves as fat, and helps provide the body with immunity to disease-causing organisms.
Composed of cells specialized for contraction and generation of force. In the process, muscular tissue generates heat that warms the body.
Detects changes in a variety of conditions inside and outside the body and responds by generating electrical signals called nerve action potentials (nerve impulses) that activate muscular contractions and glandular secretions.
Weblike strands of transmembrane proteins that fuse together the outer surfaces of adjacent plasma membranes to seal off passageways between adjacent cells.
- They inhibit the passage of substances between cells and prevent the contents of these organs from leaking into the blood or surrounding tissues.
They have plaque and usually produce a belt that holds together around the cell.
Junctions that connect cells to cells also containing plaque but connects to intermediate filaments on the outside of the cell.
On the outside of the plasma membrane, the integrins attach to the protein laminin, which is present in the basement membrane.
- Anchor cells not to each other but to the basement membrane.
Allow the cells in a tissue to communicate with one another also enable nerve or muscle impulses to spread rapidly among cells.
Three Differences between Epithelial and Connective Tissue
1. in epithelial tissue many cells are tightly packed together with little or no extracellular matrix, whereas in a connective tissue a large amount of extracellular material separates cells that are usually widely scattered
2. Epithelial tissue has no blood vessels, whereas most connective tissues have significant networks of blood vessels
3. Epithelial tissue almost always forms surface layers and is not covered by another tissue
Features of Epithelial Cells
1. Cells arranged in continuous sheets in single or multiple layers
2. Cells are closely packed and held tight by cell junctions
3. Little intercellular space between adjacent plasma membranes
Epithelial Cell Classifications
1. The arrangement of cells into layers
2. The shapes of cells
Thin, which allows for the rapid passage of substances through them
Tall as they are wide and are shaped like cubes or hexagons. They may have microvilli at their apical surface and function in either secretion or absorption.
Much taller than they are wide, like columns, and protect underlying tissues. Their apical surfaces may have cilia or microvilli, and they often are specialized for secretion and absorption.
Change shape, from squamous to cuboidal and back, as organs.
- Such as the urinary bladder stretch (distend) to a larger size and then collapse to a smaller size
Go into the bloodstream where they diffuse (Hormones)
Go through ducts to the surface of the neighboring Epithelium (Sweat)
Little bubbles on top are released
Chunk of the top is broken off
Whole cell burst and breaks off
Features of Connective Tissue
- Extracellular matrix made of protein fibers and ground substance.
- Cells are widely spaced out
Consisting of two steps transcription and translation
Takes the information encoded in DNA and encodes it into mRNA, which heads out of the cell's nucleus and into the cytoplasm
The mRNA works with a ribosome and tRNA to synthesize proteins.
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