PSYC 3620 Exam 3 Review (UNT)
Terms in this set (64)
internal working models
Cognitive representations of self, others, and relationships that infants construct from their interactions with caregivers
Self conscious emotions
Require an awareness of self (usually occurs around 3 years)
(Guilt)- Feeling bad for an action or behavior you performed
(Shame)- Attributing negative action or behavior to an unchangeable aspect of your internal self
(Pride)- Feeling competent and effective as an individual able to accomplish task/goals.
Eat marshmallow now, or wait until instructor comes back and you get 2 marshmallows.
1/3 children eat it right away
1/3 children waited 20+ minutes
Waiting for marshmallow--> delay of gratification
The expectations people develop about relationships with others, based on the relationship they had with their primary caregiver when they were infants.
Individuals act out on their environment (Usually in angry ways)
-Oppositional defiant disorder
Individuals turn emotions inward hurting themselves (Anxiety/Depression)
Basic emotional style that appears early in development and is largely genetic in origin
Type of child
(SLOW TO WARM)-
Pre-attachment (Birth to 6 weeks)
Infant behavior and caregiver hormones promote caregiving
Attachment in the making (6wks-8months)
-Recognition and responsiveness
-Stranger anxiety emerges
Clear-cut attachment (8mo-2yrs)
-Secure base (Safe haven behaviors)
-Proximity maintenance & seperation distress
Goal corrected partnership (18mo+)
Internal working model develops
Through scientific experiment, these monkeys displayed the bond attachment associated with Social development showing the need for physical contact as the monkeys clung to the softer artificial "mother" when scared, feeding and when combined with other factors such as warmth, rocking and feeding became even more appealing.
Understanding our own emotion's other's reactions.
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
Emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment
Major depressive disorder
There is no discriminant validity between anxiety and depression prior to age ten.
What is attachment?
-Emotional bond to another person
-Initially though to be related to "drive reduction"
Having both masculine and feminine traits
Pre moral stage (prior to 4 yrs) (Piaget)
Inability to consider issues in terms of morality
Heteronomous morality (4-7 yrs) (Piaget)
Moral judgements are based on adult authority
Autonomous morality (7-8 yrs) (Piaget)
Awareness of the rule and realization of importance in adhering to rules
Pre conventional (Kohlberg)
Obeying the word of authority and fear of punishment
Desire to be seen as "good" by those around you in accordance with their expectations including caring, loyalty, and gratitude.
Post conventional (Kohlberg)
Understanding that the rules of society may differ for different groups, and that some values, such as life and liberty are universal.
Externally determined (rewards/punishments)
Sense of self in preschoolers
-Sense of self is very concrete
-What I can do
-What I look like
-What I have
Elaborate on what the child
can recall, ask further questions, correct the
child if needed.
Repeat same questions;
switch topics; don't elaborate on child's
False belief paradigm
An experimental task used to assess a child's understanding that others may believe something the child knows to be untrue
A research technique used to asses a child's social status within the peer group
High on peer acceptance, low on peer rejection
High on peer rejection, low on peer acceptance
High on peer acceptance, High on peer rejection
Low on peer acceptance, low on peer rejection
Average level of peer acceptance and rejection
Practice play (Piaget)
Performing certain behaviors repeatedly for the mere pleasure of it
Symbolic/Sociodramatic play (Piaget)
Using symbolic representations and imagination for play
Games with rules (Piaget)
Making up rules for games or playing games with pre-established rules
Constructive play (Piaget)
Play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something
Types of play
Solitary, parallel, associative, cooperative
Solitary play (2 years)
A child plays alone, unaware of any other children playing nearby
unoccupied behavior play (3 months)
Looking around without active engagement
Onlooker behavior (less than 2 years)
Watching other children play
Parallel play (2-3 years)
Activity in which children play side by side without interacting
Associative play (3-4 years)
Playing with other children through sharing toys and active interaction but lacking common goal or organization
Playing with another with common goals
Larger groups than cliques, composed of individuals who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with one another
Small groups of friends who spend time together and develop close relationships
Theory of mind
The ability to understand self and others as agents who act on the basis of their mental states, such as beliefs, desires, emotions, and intentions
Being exposed repeatedly and over time to negative actions on the part of peers, including physical bullying, verbal bullying, and/or emotional bullying
The use of electronic communication to bully a person, typically by sending messages of an intimidating or threatening nature.
Victims of bullying
-Not accepted by peers
-Considered anxious and withdrawn
Discipline, strengthen the victim, mediation, restorative practice, support group, shared concern.
(Play takes away from academic learning?)
Thinking about what other people may be thinking about oneself, possibly through multiple iterations.
hostile attribution bias
The tendency to perceive hostile intent in others
A feeling that you should do something because that is what your friends want
Gender and play
More rough and tumble play
Same sex playmate preference around 3
Organized games and role playing
Same sex playmate preference around 2
Rejection Sensitivity (RS)
The extent to which a child is affected by peer rejection.
More important than in any other life period
More reciprocal and stable than in childhood
Adolescents choose friends similar in:
Risky or problem behavior
School age children
Have general questions regarding the physical and emotional aspects of sex
The mental processes that people use to make sense of the social world around them
Theory of mind
The ability to understand self and others as agents who act on the basis of their mental states, such as beliefs, desires, emotions, and intentions.
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