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Congress of Vienna

Peace settlement in 1815 dictated by Quadruple Alliance and guided by principle of the balance of power

Robert Castlereagh

representative of England at Congress of Vienna

Charles Talleyrand

representative of France at Congresss of Vienna

Carlsbad Decrees

issued by Metternich in 1819 to supress liberal ideas in the German Confederation

Germans, Magyars (Hungarians), Czechs

three main ethnic groups in Austria


ideology based on liberty and equality

laissez faire

attitude opposing government interference in economy

Adam Smith

major proponent of liberalism and laissez faire in economies


sense of cultural unity developed through common language and culture


emerged first in France, believed in economic equality


the court, the aristoracy, lawyers, and churchmen according to the early socialist mode


scientists, engineers, industrialists according to the early socialist model

Karl Marx

wrote Communist Manifesto, preached that the middle class exploited the working class and foretold a violent revolution

Georg Hegel

Marx's theory of historical revolution was based on his idea of dominant ideas clashing to producing a third idea


belief in emotional exuberance, irrationality and passion

Sturm und Drang

A German saying meaning Storm and Stress; the principles behind Romanticism

Eugene Delacroix

greatest and most moving romantic painter; masterpiece championed the nobility of revolutions: Liberty Leading the People

Corn Laws

These laws forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially to protect the aristocracy. These laws ushered in a time of free trade.


English political party that supported royalty

Reform Bill of 1832

removed rotten boroughs (living areas of England); House of Commons got more power as a result

Chartist movement

group that unsuccessfully fought for universal suffrage

Ten Hours Act of 1847

limited workday for British women

Great Famine

ravaged Ireland because of failure of potato crop; forced migration

Louis Phillipe

King of the French from 1830 to 1848 during the 'July Monarchy' and was the last king to rule France.

Ferdinand I

Habsburg Austrian Emperor who promised reforms and a liberal constitution after the Hungarian revolt. He abdicated his throne to Francis Joseph.

Francis Joseph

replaced Ferdinand, surpressed the revolution

Nicholas I

Russian Tsar who lent troops to Austria to crush revolt

Fredrick William I

weak ruler of Prussia; sacked to surpress revolution

Quadruple Alliance

Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia determined terms for France at Congress of Vienna


the working class as identified by Karl Marx


prime architect of conservatism and enemy of liberalism in Europe in mid 19th century

laissez faire

the policy that calls for only limited intervention in the economy by a government

Battle of Peterloo

peaceful working class assembly that was tragically suppressed by calvary charges. Protest was against the Six Acts that forbade public meetings


socialistic economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that stated that class struggle and violent revolution is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded

Holy Alliance

Austria, Russia and Prussia

Revolution of 1830

This was a socialist uprising led by artisans, shopkeepers and workers in France that was put down by the government, and happened the same year the Borboun monarchy was replaced with Louis Phillipe. The notable elite were the "winners" of the revolution.

Louis Blanc

prominent socialist and leader of the government after 1848 Revolution

House of Commons

lower house of Parliament in Britain that became the more important house because of the English Reform Bill of 1832

Charles X

French King who repudiated
Constitutional Charter and lost his crown as a result in the Revolution of 1830

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