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39 terms

Ch. 23 Vocabulary

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Congress of Vienna
Peace settlement in 1815 dictated by Quadruple Alliance and guided by principle of the balance of power
Robert Castlereagh
representative of England at Congress of Vienna
Charles Talleyrand
representative of France at Congresss of Vienna
Carlsbad Decrees
issued by Metternich in 1819 to supress liberal ideas in the German Confederation
Germans, Magyars (Hungarians), Czechs
three main ethnic groups in Austria
liberalism
ideology based on liberty and equality
laissez faire
attitude opposing government interference in economy
Adam Smith
major proponent of liberalism and laissez faire in economies
nationalism
sense of cultural unity developed through common language and culture
socialism
emerged first in France, believed in economic equality
parasites
the court, the aristoracy, lawyers, and churchmen according to the early socialist mode
doers
scientists, engineers, industrialists according to the early socialist model
Karl Marx
wrote Communist Manifesto, preached that the middle class exploited the working class and foretold a violent revolution
Georg Hegel
Marx's theory of historical revolution was based on his idea of dominant ideas clashing to producing a third idea
Romanticism
belief in emotional exuberance, irrationality and passion
Sturm und Drang
A German saying meaning Storm and Stress; the principles behind Romanticism
Eugene Delacroix
greatest and most moving romantic painter; masterpiece championed the nobility of revolutions: Liberty Leading the People
Corn Laws
These laws forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially to protect the aristocracy. These laws ushered in a time of free trade.
Tories
English political party that supported royalty
Reform Bill of 1832
removed rotten boroughs (living areas of England); House of Commons got more power as a result
Chartist movement
group that unsuccessfully fought for universal suffrage
Ten Hours Act of 1847
limited workday for British women
Great Famine
ravaged Ireland because of failure of potato crop; forced migration
Louis Phillipe
King of the French from 1830 to 1848 during the 'July Monarchy' and was the last king to rule France.
Ferdinand I
Habsburg Austrian Emperor who promised reforms and a liberal constitution after the Hungarian revolt. He abdicated his throne to Francis Joseph.
Francis Joseph
replaced Ferdinand, surpressed the revolution
Nicholas I
Russian Tsar who lent troops to Austria to crush revolt
Fredrick William I
weak ruler of Prussia; sacked to surpress revolution
Quadruple Alliance
Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia determined terms for France at Congress of Vienna
Proletariat
the working class as identified by Karl Marx
Metternich
prime architect of conservatism and enemy of liberalism in Europe in mid 19th century
laissez faire
the policy that calls for only limited intervention in the economy by a government
Battle of Peterloo
peaceful working class assembly that was tragically suppressed by calvary charges. Protest was against the Six Acts that forbade public meetings
Marxism
socialistic economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that stated that class struggle and violent revolution is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Holy Alliance
Austria, Russia and Prussia
Revolution of 1830
This was a socialist uprising led by artisans, shopkeepers and workers in France that was put down by the government, and happened the same year the Borboun monarchy was replaced with Louis Phillipe. The notable elite were the "winners" of the revolution.
Louis Blanc
prominent socialist and leader of the government after 1848 Revolution
House of Commons
lower house of Parliament in Britain that became the more important house because of the English Reform Bill of 1832
Charles X
French King who repudiated
Constitutional Charter and lost his crown as a result in the Revolution of 1830