Terms in this set (67)
Northern, West Midland, East Midland, Southern, and Kentish
What are the five dialects of Middle English (Know where they are on the map!)?
OE scēaP = ME _____________
OE cwePan = ME ______________
ME cleen; 
OE clæn = ME _____________. If the ModE word is spelled clean, how would the vowel be pronounced in ME?
Anglo-Norman or French? wage
Anglo-Norman or French? wicket
Anglo-Norman or French? guardian
Anglo-Norman or French? warrior
Anglo-Norman or French? regard
What letter is characteristic of Anglo-Norman?
What letter is characteristic of French?
modE ea = [?]
modE ee = [?]
-es/-s and -en
What two grammatical endings are retained in ME for plural nouns?
OE nama = ME name (pronounced e) = modE name (silent e)
What happens to the grammatical ending -a on an OE word like Nama?
cluse, clusest, cluseth, clusen
clusede, clusedest, clusede, cluseden
conjugate verb: clusen, clusede, cluseden, (y)clused 'to close'
knowe, knowest, knoweth, knowen
knewe, knewe, knewe, knewen
conjugate the verb: knowen, knewe, knewen, (y)knowen 'to know'
masculine: hē, him, his, his
neuter: hit/it, hit/it, his, his
feminine: shē, hir(e)/her(e), hires, hir(e)/her(e)
plural: they/hī, them/hem, theirs/heres, their(e)/her(e)
Give the third person ME pronouns.
nom sing: housbonde
obj sing: housbonde
gen sing: housbondes
Give the inflections for the noun housbonde 'husband' (regular plural)
OE hrōf = ME _________
OE cwēn = ME ___________
OE sōPlice (drop final -e) = ME ______________
ME sleep; [e]
OE slæp = ME _____________. If the ModE word is sleep, how would the vowel in the word be pronounced in ME?
they are still common
What happens to OE suffixes like -less, -ish, -some in later forms of English?
Give the definite article that survives from OE into ME and Modern English
make, makest, maketh, maken
makede, makedest, makede, makeden
conjugate: make, makede, makeden, (y)maked 'make'
singe, singest, singeth, singen
sōng, sunge, sōng, sungen
conjugate: singen, sōng, sungen, (y)sungen 'sing'
sing: I, mē, mīn, mī
plural: wē, us, oures, our(e)
1st person ME pronouns
thou, thee, thīn, thī
yē, you, yours, your(e)
2nd person ME pronouns
nom sing: sterre
obj sing: sterre
gen sing: sterres
give the inflections for the noun sterre (nom sing) 'star'
the cultural/governmental center in ME
What is the dominant dialect?
marks transition between OE and ME
most all the English nobles died, so French became the language of power even though most the people speak English
King John loses Normandy to the French
Henry III issues first English language proclamation since 1066
now the nobles will speak some English
Hundred Years' War
Normans want France back
this makes aristocrats speak English (didn't want to speak the language of the enemy: French)
leads to English's comeback
John Wycliffe promotes translation of Bible into English (Wycliffite Bible)
language and faith
they don't finish this translation
associating English with people's religious experiences
put down by the aristocrats
lifespan of Chaucer
contemporaries Langland, the Gawain poet, John Gower
write in English language as an artistic form
William Caxton brings printing press to England
What percent of French words are still in use in English?
w => g
Anglo Norman letter ____ => French ____
OE c = ME ______
OE sc = ME _____
OE h = ME ______
OE thorn or eth = ME ______
OE hw = ME _______
OE cw- = ME _______
ME loaf (loss of initial h before consonant)
OE hlaf = ME _________
OE hleapan = ME ______________
ME y- (the ge- in participles is now y-)
OE ge- = ME ________
ME -i or -y
OE -ic = ME ___________
OE final unstressed e = ME [?]
ME o, oo, ou
OE ā = ME _____
OE æ = ME ______
[e] = ee
 = ea
[e] = _____
 = _____
mostly disappear in ME (replaced by Latin and French re-, pre-, anti-, contra-)
OE prefixes for- to- and with- ...
in ME now rare but usually though of as part of root word
OE suffixes -dom, -hood, -ship, -ric ....
still common in ME
OE -ful, -less, -some, -ish ....
come into ME
Latin/French -tion, -or, -ee
nom, obj, gen
three noun cases in ME
it is lost
what happens to grammatical gender in ME?
they die out
some that become weak retain old strong past participles
what happens to many strong verbs in ME?
-e, -est, -eth, -en
--, -e, --, -en
ME strong verb endings present and preterit
-e, -est, -eth, -en
-e, -est, -e, -en
ME weak verb endings present and preterit
--/-e, -e, -es, -es/-en
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History and Structure Final Exam
History and Structure Test #5