AP Human Geography: Urbanization
AP Human Geography Unit 5. Some vocab terms are repeated.
Terms in this set (78)
Layout of a city, physical form and structure
conglomeration of people and buildings that serves as a center of politics, culture, and economics; An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent self-governing unit.
First Urban Revolution
Occurred in Hearths: Mesopotamia, Nile River Valley, Indus River Valley, Yellow River Valley, Mesoamerica
Site and Situation
Site: the actual place it is located
Situation: relative location, what is around it
The population of a area or region is inversely proportional
Rank 1: Top pop.
Rank 2: 1/2 of pop.
Rank 3: 1/3 of pop. of rank 1
Central Place Theory
Model predicting where central places would be functionally and spatially distributed
Central Business District (CBD)
Key economic zone, used for business and commerce, has high land prices and buildings; The area of a city where retail and office space activities are clustered.
out edge of a urban area, residential
process in which land become urbanized
Concentric Zone Model/ Burgess Model
Divided urban area into 5 zones, Circular Shape; model created by EW Burgess in 1923, which explains that a city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings, like the growth rings on a tree
Sector Model/ Hoyt Model
Focuses on residential areas and how they are related to wealth; theory developed by land economist Homer Hoyt in 1939, which explains that a city develops in a series of sectors rather than rings.
Multiple Nuclei Model/ Harris Ullman Model
Shows that urban regions have own nuclei or CBD; A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities; model created by CD Harris and EL Ullman in 1945, which explains that a city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve.
Edge Cities/ Galactis
Located away from the CBD it was used as urban area for the suburbs. Needs space, a commute, a hub, and is urban; city around a beltway that is a node of consumer and business services; A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
Urban Realm Model
Each realm has its own economic area that form larger a more metropolitan area
Used to determine they layout of a Latin American City
Subsaharan African City
contains 3 CBD
Southeast Asian Cities/ McGee Model
Colonial Zones surrounded by small business areas
Unplanned Developments of houses and shelters made mostly of scraps
Realtor would solicit white homes to sell because the neighborhood was loosing value, or was becoming majority a black neighborhood
Urban Sprawl/Suburban Sprawl
Unrestricted growth of urban areas without concern for urban planning
creates a walk-able neighborhood with a variety of housing and jobs
An economy that is not taxed or is counted towards a country's gross income
Serves as center for world economy
Country's only large city
Regions or zones lie near or adjacent to each other
German word meaning "behind the city"
Gave money to GI, enabled them to buy houses and move to suburbs
Predicts interaction between places depending on population size
Created Central Place Theory
Second Urban Revolution
Inline with Agricultural Revolution
Created new technology for both agricultural and industrial sectors
Epochs of Urban Transportation
1. Sail-Wagon Epoch
2. Iron Horse Epoch
3. Steel-Rail Epoch
4. Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch
5. Satellite-Electronic Epoch
Pre-Industrial, Transportation was slow, by water or land
Iron Horse Epoch
Early Industrial Revolution, Faster and easier, Rails
Late Industrial Revolution, Faster and cheaper, Iron < Steel, Rails
Automotive, created jobs
Post-Industrial, Air, Space, Technical
describes the price and demand or land or houses and how it changes as the distance changes from the CBD
density change in an urban area.
city around a beltway that is a node of consumer and business services
Greek word for "great city." Region described as an MSA that may overlap and cause several large metropolitan areas to come so close together that they form one continuous urban complex.
housing maintained as result of the alternative to demolishing houses.
Zone in transition
name given to the second ring of the concentric zone model, which surrounds the CBD, in the concentric zone model. This place typically contains industry and poor-quality housing.
site in which dwellings are dispersed throughout the city rather than clustered in a large project.
Legally adding land area to a city.
An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment; process of subdivision of houses and occupancy by successive waves of lower-income people.
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominately low-income, renter-occupied area to a predominately middle-class, owner-occupied area; process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the housing; Occurs when people buy and fix houses to fix or raise the value of the neighborhood
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area; rings of open space. New housing is built in the older suburbs within the rings and planned extensions, small towns, and new towns are built beyond the rings.
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the country within which the city is located, and adjacent countries meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city; area studied using a method created by the US Bureau of the Census that measures the functional area of a city.
Micropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city; smaller urban areas that the census has designated to include in part of their measure.
Peripheral Model/Galactic Model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of and inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road; model created by Chauncey Harris, which describes how an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to residents with low incomes, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families incomes.
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
Social Area Analysis
Statistical analysis used identify where people of similar living standards, ethnic background, and life style live within an urban area.
Development of new housing sites at a relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures; settlement where a large percentage of poor immigrants to urban areas in LDCs live because of a housing shortage.
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic reasons; what inner-city residents are frequently referred to because they are trapped in an unending cycle of economic and social problems.
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
In the United States, a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs.
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of a development in a community; rules developed in Europe and North America in the 20th century that encouraged spatial separation. They also prevented mixing of land uses within the same district.
Traditional building styles of different cultures, religions, and places
The 5 epochs he created
Real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant
Poor people zones; unpleasant zones
Equal treatment and involvement of all people, regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies
Separation due to ethnic groups
Parts of the country lacking the challenge of fresh fruit, vegetables, and other healthy whole foods; usually found in impoverished areas. Caused by a lack of grocery stores, farmers' markets, and healthy food providers
A very large city, typically with a population of over 10 million people
Information about quantity; information that is measurable
Descriptive data; useful for individual studies to find out the ways people think/feel
Theory of a city growth in compact areas that will prevent sprawl
Transit Oriented Development (TOD)
Mixed-used residential and commercial area designed to maximize access to public transport, and often incorporates features to encourage transit ridership
Growth of urban areas
The process by which agricultural villages were transformed into large, socially complex, urban societies.
Population shift from rural to urban areas, as well as how each society adapts to the change
A city considered to be an important part of the global economic system. Ex. Tokyo, Japan, Seoul, South Korea
Zones of Abandoment
An area that has been abandoned
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