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19th and 20th Century Social, Scientific and Political Theorists
Terms in this set (44)
"Wealth of Nations" advocated the idea of laissez faire; or government not involving themselves in the economy.
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip the food supply
English economist who formulated the "iron law of wages," according to which wages would always remain at the subsistence level for the workers because of population growth.
British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number.
Count Claude Henri de Saint Simon
Believed that modern society would require rational management, wanted a board of directors for the economy
British cotton manufacturer believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana
A utopian socialist who envisioned small communal societies, called phalanxes, in which men and women cooperated in agriculture and industry, abolishing private property and monogamous marriage as well.
Wrote the Organization of Work. Demanded an end to competition and encouraged political reform that would give the vote to the working class
He was an anarchist who was a spokesperson for terror. He sought the abolition of both capitalism and the state.
peacefully advocated for mutualism--a system of small businesses would have a cooperation and exchange of goods based on mutual recognition of the labor
German philosopher and founder of Marxism, the theory that class conflict is the motor force driving historical change and development.
German communist who aided Marx in writing The Communist Manifesto
Formed the National Union of Woman's Suffrage Societies. Advocated peaceful reform
(1858-1928): British suffragette and founder of the Women's Social and Political Union. Turned to violent tactics to spark reform
finance minister who thought that Russia's industrial backwardness was threatening Russia's power and greatness
German social democratic and member of the SPD, and the founder of revisionism.
Leader of the Bolshevik Party.
Father of sociology and founder of positivism which saw human history as 3 stages: theological, metaphysical and scientific
English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in 'On The Origin of the Species"
Alfred Russel Wallace
A co-founder of the theory of biological evolution with Charles Darwin
Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics
"The Descent of Man"
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies
Thomas Henry Huxley
defender of Darwin's evolution theory. Believed that the struggle in nature demonstrated how human beings should not behave
David Friedrich Strauss
Author of "Life of Jesus" Questioned whether the bible gave any genuine historical evidence about Jesus
Christianity and all religion is a "slave morality." Also stated that from the meaninglessness of life people called Supermen would exert their mind on others and rise to power
Jamal al-din Al-Afghani
Argued that Islam would eventually produce cultures as modern as European countries
Discovered radioactivity of uranium
German physicist who developed quantum theory
English writer whose novels depicted and criticized social injustice and the hypocrisy of the bourgeois lifestyle
French author; Madame Bovary. A realist novel.
Considered to be the father of Realism as a movement. Developed the realist novel in which he observed his characters as a scientist would observe an experiment.
A Doll's House
George Bernard Shaw
British playwright (born in Ireland). A realist
A Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes
"A Room of One's Own" A feminist and member of the British Bloomsbury Group
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis. Behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id, ego and superego
People had conscious and unconscious awareness. Studied interpretation of dreams
Emphasized understanding a particular setting from the point of view of the person in it. Pioneer of interpretive sociology.
Count Arthur de Gobineau
Author of "The Inequality of the Races". He believed that race offered the "master key" to understanding problems in the modern world.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
..., Englishman, lived in Germany, anti-Semitic. First to consider manufacturing a perfect race, considered Jews a major enemy of European racial regeneration/a hindrance to creating a perfect race.
Leader of the Zionist movement
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