Academic Vocabulary Spring
Academic Vocabulary for First Quarter of the Term
Terms in this set (33)
A word or phrase (including slang) used in everyday conversation and informal writing but that is often inappropriate in formal writing (y'all, ain't)
The use of similar grammatical constructions to express ideas that are related or equal in importance. Ex: He came, he saw, and he conquered.
A reference to another work of literature, person, or event. Ex: She is dating a Romeo.
A sub-type of parallelism, when the exact repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of successive lines or sentences Ex: It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness,
Documents that set forth principles and ideals that become the foundation for the philosophy, laws, and values by which we define ourselves as Americans. Ex: Texas vs Johnson
A character that does not change from the beginning of the story to the end Ex: Bob Ewell in TKAM
One of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle - basically an appeal to credibility. The writer is seeking to convince you that he or she has the background, history, skills, and/or expertise to speak on the issue. Ex: "Dentists all over the world are telling
their patients the same things. You must
An appeal to emotion. This is one of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle. Typically, uses loaded words to make you feel guilty, lonely, worried, insecure, or confused. Ex: "If you don't purchase this life
insurance, and something happens to
you, how will your family survive?"
An appeal to reason - one of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle. Writers may use inductive argumentation or deductive argumentation, but they clearly have examples and generally rational tone to their language. Ex: Cigarette smoke contains over 4,800
chemicals, 69 of which are known to
cause cancer. So why start smoking?"
The art of using language effectively and persuasively
A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work. Ex: Extended metaphor is found quite often in poetry. William Shakespeare used it in many of his plays. For example, in his play Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare writes: 'But Soft! What light through yonder window breaks? It is the East, and Juliet is the sun! Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, Who is already sick and pale with grief.' In these lines, Romeo is comparing Juliet to the sun, and he continues to do so through several lines. He even says the moon is jealous of her brightness.
Placement of two things closely together to emphasize comparisons or contrasts Ex: Light and darkness juxtaposed in Romeo and Juliet: "O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright!
It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night
Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope's ear;"
Here, the radiant face of Juliet is juxtaposed with a black African's dark skin. Romeo admires Juliet by saying that her face seems brighter than brightly lit torches in the hall. He says that, at night, her face glows like a bright jewel that shines against the dark skin of an African.
A statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth. Paradox is a logic statement contradicting itself. It can also be said to be a sentence that is opposed to the common sense but yet can be true.Ex: I can resist everything except temptation.
A figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction or near each other. Ex: Open secret; Ex: "O brawling love! O loving hate! . . .
O heavy lightness! serious vanity!
Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms!
Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health!
Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is!
This love feel I, that feel no love in this.
-Romeo and Juliet
a fatal flaw leading to the downfall of a tragic hero or heroine Ex: A hero is blinded by his loyalty to his best friend, even though his friend is working to betray him.
Excessive pride or self-confidence
An author's choice of words, phrases, sentence structures and figurative language, which combine to help create meaning and tone.
The writer or speaker eliminates the conjunctions that would normally connect two or more phrases or parts of a phrase and is used to indicate some rush or immediacy. EX: "He eats, sleeps, drinks."
A recurring pattern of symbols, colors, events, allusions or imagery. Ex: The word "night" in Night.
A common meter in poetry consisting of an unrhymed line with five feet or accents, each foot containing an unaccented syllable and an accented syllable. Five sets of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. But SOFT, what LIGHT through YONder WINdow breaks?
14 lines of poetry, written in iambic pentameter and usually possessing a rhyme scheme of abab cdcd efef gg
a mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound argument
Rhetorical techniques used to persuade an audience by emphasizing what they find most important or compelling. The three major appeals are to ethos (character), logos (reason), and pathos (emotion).
The character in a story who causes the protagonist, or main character, to move toward some kind of action or transformation. Ex:If William Shakespeare had not killed off the catalytic character of Mercutio, the play Romeo and Juliet might very well have ended up being entitled Mercutio. In the opening scenes, it is Mercutio who teases and chastises Romeo's fickle heart, pushing Romeo toward a different kind of obsession with one girl, Juliet. Ironically, it is Mercutio's accidental death at the hands of Juliet's cousin, Tybalt, that causes Romeo to become a murderer himself, leading ultimately to the tragic denouement of Romeo and Juliet. Mercutio's purpose in Romeo and Juliet was to catalyze Romeo into action. Once he had fulfilled that purpose, he no longer was needed. Thus, exits Mercutio.
The deliberate use of a series of conjunctions. Ex: Mrs. Hurst and her sister allowed it to be so—but still they admired her and liked her, and pronounced her to be a sweet girl, and one whom they would not object to know more of.
A weakness or limitation of character, resulting in the fall of the tragic hero.
A literary character who makes an error of judgment or has a fatal flaw that, combined with fate and external forces, brings on a tragedy; a person who faces adversity, or demonstrates courage, in the face of danger though he may face a downfall as well. Ex: Romeo is a man of high social standing, who falls in love easily with a girl whose family holds animosity towards his own family. Romeo's tragic flaw is start believing on his fate immediately. Juliet acts like a dead person, and Romeo thinks her actually dead. Therefore, he kills himself. When she wakes up and sees him dead, she also kills herself. Thus, it is not only fate, but also his actions and choices that bring his downfall and death.
A comparison of two different things that are similar in some way Ex: Life is like a race.
a character that is both round and dynamic... they have internal conflicts and change over the course of a piece of literature. Ex: Scout in TKAM
to portray, sketch, or describe in accurate and vivid detail
expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence with a subject and a verb. Ex: He ate dinner.
A regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry
A clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence Ex: After he went shopping,
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