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Principles of Learning & Teaching (PLT) 7-12 - Summary
Terms in this set (82)
Social (or observational) Learning Theory
Bandura -- Observation.
Children learn by observing others (Vicarious learning). Model behaviors and skills. Self-efficay
Constructivism Theory and Discovery Learning
Discovery learning and scaffolding.
Learning is an active process, learners construct ideas based on knowledge or past experiences. Discover information by themselves.
Learning Through Experience
Dewey -- Father of progressive education.Project-based learning, cooperative learning. Learning is a process of living. Teach children to be problem solvers. "Just Dew it"
Stages of Cognitive Development
Piaget -- focus on how knowledge develops in humans as they grow. 4 stages to Cognitive development:
Sensorimotor 0-2 years,
preoperative 3-7 is intuitive,
concrete operational 8-11 is logical but depends on concrete referents, and
formal operations 12 -15 is abstract thinking.
Piaget also has a theory of Moral Development
Zone of Proximal Development
Key concept of Vygotsky theory of Social Development.
Where best learning can occur, it is where a student can learn with help.
Social Constructivsm, Sociocultural development.
Theory of Moral Development
Kohlberg -- 3 levels:
(pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional).
Level 1: Stage 1 & 2 - Focuses on elementary level
Level 2: Stage 3 & 4 - Approval of othere, middle school
Level 3: Stage 5 & 6 - high school
Impacts the way educators writer learning objectives, plan learning activities, and assess student performance.
1. Knowledge: recall
2. Comprehension: understanding, interpret
3. Application: use in new situations
4. Analysis: break down into parts
5. Synthesis: put parts together
6. Evaluation: judge value.
Founder of behaviorism.
His theories center around reward and punishment (positive and negative reinforcement)
His theories center on the law of effect, which says that "when a connection between a stimulus and a response is positively rewarded it will be strengthened, and that the more the stimulus-response bond is practiced, the stronger it becomes. By teaching new information in small steps and providing quick and timely assessments for students, the teacher is using the "Law of Effect" to increase student success and understanding
Skinner - Operant Conditioning
Pioneer of Operant conditioning, Grandfather of behaviorism as he conducted research on behavioral learning theory. Positive reinforcement -- getting something good when you do something right.
Negative reinforcement is when something negative gets taken away when you do something right.
pairing a previous neutral stimulus (testing) with an unconditioned stimulus (anxiety).
Eight Stages of Human Development
Erik Erikson's theory of 8 stages of human development.
Stage 1: Infancy, Stage 2: Toddler, Stage 3: Early Childhood,
Stage 4: Elem. and Middle School, Stage 5: Adolescence,
Stage 6: Young Adulthood,
Stage 7: Middle Adulthood, Stage
8: Late Adulthood
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Humanistic Approach - lower needs must be met before higher learning can be met.
1. Physiological Needs like air, water, food, sleep,
2. Safety Needs like secure home and family
3. Love and belongingness needs
4. Esteem needs for recognition,
5. Self actualization - to seek peae, oneness, can reach this after first four have been met
5 types of how people learn
2. Social cognitive theory,
3. Information processing theory,
4. Constructivism, and
5. Sociocultural theory.
Learning is a process of accessing and changing associations between stimuli & responses. Classroom management and establishing positive contexts.
-- Skinner, Thorndike, and Pavlov.
Social cognitive theory
The way people learn from observing each other.
-- Albert Bandura
Information processing theory
Focuses on what happens inside the learners mind, similar to a computer. often uses the terms storage, retrieval, working memory, and long-term memory.
-- No key Theorist
People construct or create their own understanding/knowledge based on their experiences and interactions.
-- Piaget and Bruner
Combination of social, cultural, and historical contexts in which a learner exists have great influence on the persons knowledge construction and the ways teachers must organize instruction. -- Lev Vygotsky, ZPD
Teaching methods that enable students to discover information by themselves or in groups.
1. Benjamin Bloom
2. Albert Bandura
3. Jerome Bruner
4. John Dewey
5. Erik Erikson
6. Lawrence Kohlberg
7. Abraham Maslow
8. Jean Piaget
9. B.F. Skinner
10. Lev Vygotsky
11. Howard Gardner
1. Taxonomy of learning domains
2. Social Learning Theory and Modeling
3. Discovery Learning and Scaffolding
4. Learning Through Experience
5. Eight Stages of Human Development
6. Theory of Moral Development
7. Hierarchy of Needs
8. Stages of Cognitive Development
9. Operant Conditioning
10. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
1. Ivan Pavlov
2. Maria Montessor
3. Jacob Kounin
4. William Glasser
5. David Ausubel
6. Luis Moll
7. Nitza Hildalgo
8. Carol Gilligan
9. Lee Canter
1. Classical Conditioning
2. Follow the Child
4. Choice Theory
5. Advance Organizer
6. Funds of Knowledge
7. Three Levels of Culture
8. Stages of Ethic of Care
9. Assertive Discipline
Responding to a new event or object by changing an existing scheme or creating a new scheme.
responding to a new event or object that is consistent with an existing scheme
when teachers ask and then help students answer questions by proposing hypotheses, gathering and evaluating data, and generating conclusions. This promotes an understanding of the scientific method. students are active partners in the search for knowledge (bruner)
Attention deficit disorder (ADD)
have difficulty focusing, following directions, organizing, making transitions, completing tasks and so on.
Motivation that comes from "without" or from outside a person. Stickers, behavior charts, and incentives for learning are all examples of extrinsic motivators for students.
Motivation that comes from "within" of from inside a person. Providing students time to reflect on goals and achievements or helping students see what they have learned and how it's important are examples of intrinsic motivators for students.
A person's ability to think about his or her own thinking. Requires self awareness and and self regulation of thinking.
Process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable
An educational practice in which students of similar abilities are placed within the same instructional groups.
A strategy that groups students of varied ability instead of by grade/age level.
small groups of classmates work toward common goals
Students working in groups to solve problems together.
The ability to apply a lesson learned in one situation to another situation.
Student-teacher writing conferences
Offer insight to help teachers provide feedback to students that will enable them to develop into more effective writers.
To assess a student's skills and knowledge levels to determine areas of strength and weakness. This assessment is the most appropriate way for a teacher to determine the instructional needs of a new student.
Analytic Scoring Rubric
A form of authentic assessment that is most appropriate for a teacher to use to assess specific skills separately, particularly for assignments that involve a larger number of criteria, such as a lab report.
The best first step when using peer assessment in the classroom. As a group, students determine what should be assessed and how criteria for successful completion of the communication task should be defined to provide the most helpful feedback to their peers.
Characteristic of intellectually gifted students
Gifted students often possess an intense desire to learn about their own interests.
Their cognitive ability to think at abstract levels earlier than same-aged peers and form their own ways of thinking about problems and ideas indicates that intellectually gifted students need advanced content and choice in learning activities.
A belief that one is capable.
the ability to control one's learning or behavior
Commonly used to regain students' attention and encourage students to listen to each other and stay focused during discussions without interrupting the flow of instruction.
Research supports eliminating systems of credit points. It also advises against trying to use grades to control nonacademic behavior. When students are given the opportunity to redo assignments, they will seek a better understanding of the material.
creating something, acting out solutions in role-play situation
using favorite colors, solving conflict through active discussion
recalling and matching data through cognitive skills
Pairing new teachers with seasoned professionals for help, feedback and guidance. This practice has a positive effect on teacher job satisfaction and commitment and, thus, increase retention of new teachers.
Inviting and Inclusive Middle School Environment
Promotes in-depth learning and enhances students' physical and emotional well-being.
Every student is guided by an adult advocate who monitors and supports the student's academic and personal development.
Relating classroom activities to the needs and interests of students and families, the school promotes parent partnerships and a family-centered program.
Gardner's theory of 8 ways of learning: Verbal/linguistic, Logical/mathematical Visual/spatial, Bodily/kinesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, and naturalist
Ways to Support ELL
Building on students' cultures, supporting students' proficiency in their native language, giving students time to learn english, and offering students opportunities to work in small groups.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Federal law passed in 1990 to give protection and prohibits discrimination on the basis of a person's disability for all services, programs, and activities provided or made available by the state and local governments.
Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)
Federal statute made up of several grant programs to states in educating students with disabilities. Specifically lists types of disabilities and conditions that render a child entitled to special education.
A student with juvenile arthritis but no mental impairments, A student with attention deficit disorder (ADD), A student who has been seriously injured in an accident, Students with disabilities that require some type of accommodation but not necessarily "specialized instruction" are offered these
Includes anecdotal records of behavior, portfolios, checklists, student/teacher conferences. Provides a view of a student's process and product which is closely related to the classroom instruction.
A flexible approach to teaching, varied approaches to teaching content, process and product based on an effort to respond to student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs.
Longer testing times, untimed tests, scribe, braille or large-print font, short breaks during testing, sign-language interpretation for directions, and more.
Basic needs: nutrition, emotional care, safety, love, belonging. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs reminds us these needs must be met for students to be ready to learn. When these needs are not met, students can often have emotional or social issues.
a motivation -
Discrepancy between beliefs and behaviors, something must change in order to eliminate or reduce the dissonance
I hate boot camp but I want to be a marine, so I can accept bootcamp because it does build character.
Develop routines and procedures, maintain accurate records, establish standards of conduct, know how to arrange classroom space, recognize ways o promote positive learning environment.
Strategies to help students develop self-motivation
Assign valuable tasks, provide frequent feedback, include students in instructional decisions, de-emphasize grades
clearly communicate expectations and rules and follow through with expectations. Students have a choice to follow rules or face consequences.
Emphasizes the following parts of a lesson: Objectives, Standards of Performance, Anticipatory Set (aka Advance Organizer), Teaching (including modeling, student input, directions, checking for understanding), Guided practice and monitoring, lesson closure, extended practice
Compares a student's knowledge in academic area to objectives of state.
Compares a student's score to a group of other students who have taken the test
Systematic, preplanned tests that allow us to measure how well a student has mastered learning outcomes. Standardized testing. Also used to compare students to other students in a school or larger regional area. Four types of Formal Assessments: criterion references, program tests, essay tests, standardized tests.
Quick assessments in the classroom, on a daily basis, like clipboard notes of observation, exit slips, quick 1-2 question quizzes. Informal assessment guides instruction in the short term - where to go with lessons today or tomorrow.
A test designed to determine a person's ability in a particular skill or field of knowledge (for future).
Assessment designed to measure students' learned reasoning abilities in the three areas most linked to academic success in school: Verbal, Quantitative and Nonverbal.
A test of developed skill or knowledge.
A standardized test developed to measure skills and knowledge learned in a given grade level.
Interdisciplinary unit instruction
Units are designed to include multiple content areas, all focused on the same theme; frequently realistic and focused on students interests and experiences outside the classroom. Helps students see the connections and real life links.
Provide the teacher with feedback and information during the course of the instructional process and are not necessarily graded.
What has been learned, and what remains to be learned. Quiz,
measure of student's achievement and teacher's instruction at the end of a unit, for example, a chapter test.
carefully selected collection of student products, and sometimes teacher observations, collected over time, that reflect a student's progress in a certain area.
measure of student understanding of the learning process and product, rather than just the product. Here students develop responses rather than choosing from preset options.
Usually used for scoring writing, rubric lists specific items to be included in answer or essay, and how many points are listed for each.
(Various aspect of students performance).
Uses general criteria for scoring; usually for writing or constructed response questions
Mean, Median, Mode
Average, Midpoint, most common
extent to which an assessment is consistent with its measures
a test that measures what it is meant to measure
Theory set forth by psychologist Albert Bandura that a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment.
1. Material or skill being taught
2. The order in which you teach the information
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