APHG Chapter 6- Industrialization and Development - Practice
Terms in this set (40)
the act of making some area of land or water more profitable or productive or useful; human development is continuous and unending process.
the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going; imperial powers created infrastructure for the weaker nations.
examples: roads, bridges, rail lines for commerce/trade; wifi/internet access; powerlines & electricity
the contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment (applicable on a levels of scales).
examples: international scale (MDCs have more technology than LDCs); on national scales (urban areas of the US have more access & better technology than rural schools located in the periphery in the US
gross domestic product (GDP) GDP= goods+services
measure of the United States economy adopted in 1991/ the dollar amount of all final goods and services produced within a country's borders in a year.
gross national product/income (GNI)
former measure of the United States economy, the total value of goods and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a year
more accurate that GDP
GNI= (GOODS + SERVICES) + (EXPORTS-IMPORTS)
purchasing power parity (PPP)
measurement tool for calculating the exchange rates required for each currency to buy an equal amount of goods; estimate that takes into account differences in prices; GNI per capita can make a First World country appear more prosperous than third world, but it doesn't factor in the cost of living in each country; the PPP correction makes a basic good (loaf of bread), the same price in all countries.
business activities that are taxed and are regulated; as a result, included in the country's GDP.
examples: teachers, lawyers, fast-food workers, bankers, etc.
business activities that are NOT taxed or regulated; they are "under the table;" as a result, they are NOT included in the country's GDP
examples: drug trafficking, human trafficking, babysitting; construction side jobs, street vendors
newly industrializing countries (NICs)
third world states that have economies that have made a shift away from agriculture and toward manufacturing as a focus of economic development.
examples: Mexico, Brazil, Nigeria, Vietnam, China, Philippines
Human Development Index
indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy; countries receive an index score from 0.00 to 1.00.
primary economic activities
activities that revolve around getting raw materials from the earth.
examples: agriculture/farming, mining, fishing
secondary economic activities
activities related to processing/manufacturing raw materials into a finished product.
examples: paper mill, brewery, Toyota plant, (all manufacturing)
tertiary economic activities
activities related that move, sell and trade the products made in primary & secondary activities.
examples: UPS/ Fedex shipping, Kroeger, Fast-food restaurant, Wal-Mart
Walt Rostow's Modernization Model
based on Western process of industrialization; model that states that all states go through 5 stages of development; based on the assumption that all countries develop the same way.
theory that exemplifies the structuralist perspectives; holds that most LDCS are highly dependent on foreign owned factories, foreign direct investment and technology from MDCs to provide employment opportunities and infrastructure; arguing that the political and economic relations among countries limit the ability of LDC's to modernize & develop; explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones.
one strategy for LDCS to break dependency; instead of buying simple First-World made consumers products like Tide, Dawn, Dove, this approach calls for building factories that can produce these simple products in LDCs; the profits can then be sent to LDC banks and reinvested locally opposed to profits going back to MNC (P&G) in First World states.
nationalization of industry
foreign ownership over resources (mines & oil) robs the LDCs governments of potential earnings for development; as a result, foreign companies are kicked out of the LDC, the LDC government owns the mine/oilfield and the money made can be used for local economic development.
foreign direct investment
investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
stipulations that require the country receiving an international loan to make economic changes in order to use the loan;
example: the IMF may give a loan to a LDC with the stipulation that its publicly owned health care, water and/or oil must be privatized (supply & demand).
the selling of publicly and/or government operated industries to market driven corporations.
when technological knowledge, training and industrial equipment is provided by MDCs to NIC gov't to increase business efficiency and capacity.
World Systems Theory
Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world. (core, periphery, semi-periphery).
Example of dependency/structuralist
demonstrates a pattern of development levels in which MDCS exist in the Northern hemisphere; whereas most LDC exist in the Southern hemisphere. [see map]
program that provides small loans to poor people, especially women, to encourage development of small businesses.
balance between the pace of human development (literacy rate, child mortality rate) and the environment that supports that environment; a level of development that does not destroy the earth's ability to regenerate its resource supply for future generations of inhabitants of the earth.
Weber's Least Cost Theory
model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
if several industries cluster into one city to help provide services, talents, and services for each other
examples: Hollywood, Silicon Valley, a mall, Nashville (country music), hospitals
process that takes raw materials and creates a heavier final product; as a result, industry is located closer to the market.
examples: soda, beer brewing [see diagram]
manufacturing process that takes raw materials and converts them into a product that is lighter than the raw materials that went into making the finished product; as a result, factories are located closer to raw materials
examples: nickel smelting (any metal ore), paper mill located next to forest, seafood packaging [see diagram]
break in bulk points
a location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another.
examples: transferring from ship to train; or from train to truck
Hotelling's Locational Interdependence
related to agglomeration theory; industries choose locations based on where their competitors are located; it allows them to maximize the market share.
examples: gas stations off a highway exit; ice cream shops on a beach boulevard
Newly Industrialized Countries (NIC)
country that has established an industrialized economy based on manufacturing & global trade
examples: Brazil, India, China, Mexico, Vietnam, etc.
when a TNC/MNC relocates a piece or all of its manufacturing operations to other countries.
export processing zones (EPZ)
zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment.
example: Maquiladoras in Mexico are just one example, there are EPZ all over the world
ability of a country to produce a good or offer a service better than another country can; they can do it more efficiently and cheaper than other states.
India has a comparative advantage for call centers due to its colonial history; use of English whereas, China, Vietnam, etc do not have as strong of background with the English language.
centers or nodes of high-technology research/ a high tech agglomeration and activity around which a corridor is sometimes established
examples: Silicon Valley
free trade agreements
agreements made between states to improve status on international trade and make themselves stronger; removes tariffs (taxes on goods crossing borders) among regional member stats: free is not necessarily free trade.
Examples: NAFTA, EU
resources that once extracted, the earth cannot reproduce them.
examples; fossil fuels, minerals
fuels that are formed when organic matter deposited on the earth's surface is changed by pressure and time over thousands of years.
examples: coal, oil, or natural gas.
energy that is collected from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale; tend to be more expensive to harness than fossil fuels.
examples: solar, wind, nuclear, tidal, geothermal, biofuel, biomass, hydropower
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