Terms in this set (34)
Article III: Judicial Branch
Establishes a Supreme Court and defines its jurisdiction.
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Federal courts created by Congress under the authority of Article III of the Constitution
Courts of Appeals
federal courts that hear appeals from district courts; no trials
only the federal courts may hear and decide cases
The state or federal courts share jurisdiction.
the power of a court to hear a case first, before any other court
Authority to hear only cases that have come to them on appeal from lower district courts or from federal regulatory agencies.
judges decide cases based on the original intent of the Constitution or statue and precedent
judges interpret the law based on changing conditions and values
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Established judicial review
The court can review any federal or state laws to see if it is in agreement with the Constitution.
the majority decision or ruling of the court which explains the reasoning behind the decision
justice(s) who agrees with the majority decision, but for different or additional reasons
justice(s) who disagrees with the decision and why they disagree, has no effect on the case or law, but is still important in future cases
an individual, company, or institution sued or accused in a court of law.
the person who brings legal action against another person
Consists of nine justices, each appointed by the President and confirmed by Congress. Appointment is for life. Supreme Court exercises the power to determine constitutionality of statutes
apply to a higher court for a reversal of the decision of a lower court.
Federal courts where trials are held and lawsuits are begun. The lowest level of court. There are 94 courts in the US and at least one in every state.
cases in which two sides disagree over some issue/complaint
cases in which juries decide whether people have committed crimes
Mid-level in the court system. There are 13 Appellate courts in the US.
The first court to hear a case or trial (a court of original jurisdiction)
A group of people who decide a case after hearing evidence
People or things that can prove one side's version of what happened
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
complaint the first person makes to the court; also called a lawsuit
the district court official who serves subpoenas and arrests and delivers defendants to court
a court order requiring someone to appear in court
Court of Appeals
Above district courts in the federal court system; also called federal appeals courts, circuit courts of appeals, appellate courts.
A particular geographical area of jurisdiction of a federal court of appeals.
Court Martial Opinion
A trial before a panel of military officers.
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