Terms in this set (27)
Article III: Judicial Branch
Establishes a Supreme Court and defines its jurisdiction.
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Federal courts created by Congress under the authority of Article III of the Constitution
Courts of Appeals
federal courts that hear appeals from district courts; no trials
a court has sole authority to hear a case
power shared by federal and state courts to hear certain cases
the power of a court to hear a case first, before any other court
the jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on appeal from lower courts
judges decide cases based on the original intent of the Constitution or statue and precedent
judges interpret the law based on changing conditions and values
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Established judicial review
The power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
the majority decision or ruling of the court which explains the reasoning behind the decision
justice(s) who agrees with the majority decision, but for different or additional reasons
justice(s) who disagrees with the decision and why they disagree, has no effect on the case or law, but is still important in future cases
an individual, company, or institution sued or accused in a court of law.
the person who brings legal action against another person
Consists of nine justices, each appointed by the President and confirmed by Congress. Appointment is for life. Supreme Court exercises the power to determine constitutionality of statutes
apply to a higher court for a reversal of the decision of a lower court.
The lowest level of court. There are 94 courts in the US and at least one in every state.
Usually, involve disagreements with money or services that someone did or did not provide someone else. Examples are divorce, payment of child support, injury claims, or arguments over payment for a service.
Court cases that concern crimes committed against the public order.
Mid-level in the court system. There are 13 Appellate courts in the US.
The first court to hear a case or trial (a court of original jurisdiction)
A group of people who decide a case after hearing evidence
People or things that can prove one side's version of what happened
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
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