17 terms

AP Biology Respiration

Respiration: oxidation, reduction, glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain
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What is the difference between anabolic and catabolic pathways?
catabolic reactions break down molecules and release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds. Anabolic reactions build larger molecules from smaller ones, they consume energy to do this.
What is oxidation-reduction?
a chemical reaction in which an atom or ion loses electrons to another atom or ion
When a molecule is oxidized what does it mean?
electrons are lost
What organelle does respiration take place?
mitochondria
What are the 3 steps of aerobic cellular respiration?
Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain
Where does each step take place?
Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol of the cell; the Krebs Cycle and the ETC take place in the mitochondria
Where is most ATP made?
a majority of ATP is produced in the ETC
What is the difference between substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation?
Substrate-level produces ATP molecules via transfer of a phosphate group
What are the reactants of glycolysis?
1 molecule of glucose, 2 molecules of NAD-, and 2 molecules of ATP
What are the products of glycolysis?
2 molecules of pyruvic acid, 2 molecules of NADH, and 4 molecules of ATP
What are the reactants of the Krebs cycle?
the 2 molecules of pyruvic acid from glycolysis
what are the products of the Krebs cycle?
2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 4CO2
What are the reactants of the ETC?
oxygen and ADP
What are the products of the ETC?
ATP, oxidized NAD+ ions, H2O
What happens to a phophorylated molecule?
it can activate or deactivate the protein by changing the overall shape of the molecule
Why is oxygen so important in cellular respiration?
oxygen is the electron acceptor in cell respiration
What is ATP synthase and what is its importance in cellular respiration?
it is an enzyme that can synthesize ATP from ADP by using a form of energy. It is important because it is linked to the ETS through the proton-motive force which allows protons back into the mitochondria