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39 terms

Freshman Biology - Chapter 2 - The Chemistry of Life

Freshman Biology - Chapter 2 - The Chemistry of Life
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atom
the basic unit of matter
nucleus
the center of an atom, which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA
electron
negatively charged particle; located in the space surrounding the nucleus
element
pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
isotope
on of several forms of a single element, which contains the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
compound
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
ionic bond
chemical bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
ion
atom that has a positive or negative charge
covalent bond
type of bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared
molecule
smallest unit of most compounds that displays all the properties of that compound
van der Waals forces
slight attraction that develops between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
hydrogen bond
weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom
cohesion
attraction between molecules of the same substance
adhesion
force of attraction between different kinds of molecules
mixture
material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
solution
type of mixture in which all the components are evenly distributed
solute
substance that is dissolved in a solution
solvent
dissolving substance in a solution
suspension
mixture of water and nondissolved material
pH scale
scale with values from 0 to 14; used to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution; a pH of 0 to 7 is acidic; a p H of 7 is neutral, and a pH of 7 to 14 is basic
acid
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; a solution with a pH of less than 7 (44)
base
compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH++) in solution; solution with a pH or more than 7
buffer
compound that prevents sharp, sudden changes in pH
monomer
small chemical unit that makes up a polymer
polymer
molecules composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules
carbohydrate
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; type of nutrient that is the major source of energy for the body
monosaccharide
simple sugar molecule
lipid
macromolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
nucleic acid
macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
nucleotide
subunit of which nucleic acids are composed; made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
protein
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair
amino acid
compound with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end
chemical reaction
process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
reactant
elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
product
elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
activation energy
energy that is needed to get a reaction started
catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
enzyme
protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions
substrate
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction