Lab quiz 3.19
Terms in this set (47)
As you listened to the heart sounds during the laboratory session, what differences in pitch, length, and amplitude of the two sounds did you observe?
First heart sound is longer, louder, and lower in pitch than the second heart sound, which is short, sharp, and high-pitched
In order to ausculate most accurately, indicate where you would place your stethoscope for the closure of the tricuspid valve:
Left or right sternal border of the 5th intercostal space
In order to ausculate most accurately, indicate where you would place your stethoscope for the closure of the aortic valve:
Right sternal border of the 2nd intercostal space
In order to ausculate most accurately, indicate where you would place your stethoscope for the apical heartbeat:
5th intercostal space in line with the middle of the left clavicle
Which valve is heard most clearly when the apical heartbeat is ausculated?
How might abnormal sounds be used to diagnose heart problems?
Abnormals sounds such as swishing sounds after valvular closure might indicate valvular problems
Pressure surges in an artery during each contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle
Describe the procedure used to take the pulse:
Place the first 2-3 fingertips of one hand over an arterial pressure point. Compress firmly and then release the pressure slightly to palpate the pulse
Identify the artery palpated at the pressure point at the wrist.
Identify the artery palpated at the pressure point in front of the ear.
Identify the artery palpated at the pressure point on the dorsum of the foot.
Identify the artery palpated at the pressure point at the side of the neck.
When you were palpating the various pulse or pressure points, which appeared to have the greatest amplitude or tension?
carotid artery because they are major arteries that deliver blood to the brain and they are closest to the heart
Assume someone has been injured in an auto accident and is hemorrhaging badly. What pressure point would you compress to help stop bleeding from each of the following areas?
-the thigh: femoral artery
-the forearm: brachial artery
-the calf: popliteal artery
-the thumb: radial artery
How could you tell by simple observation whether bleeding is arterial or venous?
If it spurts, it is arterial. It will flow evenly if it is venous blood
You may sometimes observe a slight difference between the value obtained from an apical pulse (beats/min) and that from an arterial pulse taken elsewhere on the body. What is this difference called?
Define blood pressure
Pressure exerted by blood against the walls of the blood vessels
Identify the phase of the cardiac cycle to which each of the following applies:
systolic pressure: systole (contraction)
diastolic pressure: diastole (relaxation)
What is the name of the instrument used to compress the artery and record pressures in the ausculatory method of determining blood pressure?
What are the sounds of Korotkoff?
sounds that can be ausculated over a partially occluded artery
What causes the systolic sound?
Sound of turbulent blood flow as it first begins to move through the constricted artery
What causes the disappearance of the systolic sound?
Blood is flowing freely; the artery is no longer constricted
Interpret the pressure reading for each of the numbers listed:
145: systolic pressure
85: diastolic pressure reported as the point where the sound muffles
82: diastolic pressure reported at the point at which sound disappears
Assume the following BP measurement was recorded for an elderly patient with severe arteriosclerosis: 170/110/-. Explain the inability to obtain the third reading.
The patients arteries are so narrowed by arteriosclerosis that blood flow is always partially occluded. Hence, the sound.
Define pulse pressure and explain why this measurement is important
systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure...it indicates the actual working pressure
How do venous pressures compare to arterial pressures?
venous pressures are lower because veins are far removed from the pumping action of the heart
What maneuver to increase the thoracic pressure illustrates the effect of external factors on venous pressure?
valsalva maneuver- a person takes a deep breath and mimics the motions of exhaling forcibly, but without actually exhaling. The glottis will close and the intrathoracic pressure will increase
What might an abnormal increase in venous pressure indicate?
What effect does increased diameter of arterioles have on blood pressure?
What effect does increase blood viscosity have on blood pressure?
What effect does increased cardiac output have on blood pressure?
What effect does hemorrhage have on blood pressure?
What effect does arteriosclerosis have on blood pressure?
What effect does increased pulse rate have on blood pressure?
In which position is the blood pressure normally at its highest and lowest?
What immediate changes in blood pressure did you observe when the subject stood up after being in the sitting or reclining position?
It decreased initially and then increased
What changes in the blood vessels might account for the change?
Upon standing, gravitational pull caused blood pooling in the lower part of the body, but then vasoconstriction inhibited by the vasomotor center caused blood pressure to rise
After the subject stood for 3 minutes, what changed in blood pressure were observed?
It decreased once again because of the decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system
What was the effect of exercise on blood pressure and pulse rate?
It increased the blood pressure and pulse rate
Why are there normally no significant increases in diastolic pressure after exercise?
Since diastolic pressure reflects the heart in relaxation, it would not be expected to increase in healthy individuals
What effects of the cold temperature did you observe on blood pressure in the laboratory?
increase bloop pressure
Why would heat decrease bp?
vasodilation would occur
Differentiate between hypo and hyperreactor relative to the cold pressor test
Hyperreactors exhibit a rise of 23 mm Hg or more in bp during the test. Hyporeactors exhibit a smaller increase or a decrease in bp
Describe normal skin color and the appearance of the veins in the subject's forearm before any testing was conducted.
Skin pink; veins flat and difficult to raise
What is the importance of collateral blood supplies?
Can maintain the blood supply to an organ or body part in case the nutrient artery is occluded
Explain the mechanism by which mechanical stimulation of the skin produced a flare.
Local inflammatory response produced by the chemical mediators released by injured tissue cells
What changes occured when the subject emptied the forearm of blood (by raising the arm and making a fist) and the flow was occluded with the cuff?
Skin becomes pale and cool