Certified Professional Photographer Exam

a set of flash cards taken directly from the CPP certification book information.
setting where you set the shutter speed and the camera sets the aperture
shutter priority automatic exposure
setting where you set the aperture and the camera sets the shutter speed
aperture priority automatic exposure
a negative that is flat or low in contrast , meaning the highlights are not very much more dense than the shadows, is said to be
an underdevleoped negative
if your negatives are often flat, to correct you can
increase the film developement at 20% more than the normal time
a low contrast negative can be from (2 things)
low contrast in the original scene or from underdeveloping the negative
a high contrast negative may result from (2 things)
high contrast in the original scene or from overdeveloping the film
if your negatives are often contrasty, to correct you can
decrease the development at 80% of the normal time
a negative with a great deal of contrast or difference between the shadows and highlights, where the highlights are dense and the shadows are very thin
overdeveloped negative
a negative that has dense (very dark) highlights and more than adequate density in the shadows
overexposed negative
if your negatives are often dense you can correct by
decreasing the exposure
to decrease exposure one stop you could multiply the ISO by ___
a negative with little or no detail in the shadow areas that is thin or light overall is known as a
underexposed negative
if your negatives are often thin, you can correct by
increasing the exposure by setting a lower film speed
dividing the ISO by 2 ______exposure one stop
a negative that has a good seperation of tones in highlights, midtones and shadows is said to be a
normal negative
the difference in density between thinner (lighter parts) of the negative is known as
if your negatives are consistently very thin or very dense, you should
check your meter
the amount of silver built up in the negative overall or in a particular part of the negative is known as
a negative that is darker is said to be
more dense
a negative that is lighter is said to be
a _____ lens is useful for extremely close-up shots
_________lenses are popular because they combine a range of focal lengths into one lens
________lenses are corrected for abberations that occur at close focusing distances
________ lenses allow you to focus at a very close range
a _________ lens exaggerates the size differences between objects that are near and far from the camera
a _______ lens has a barrell distortio inherent in its design
the bending of the straight lines at the edge of an image is known as
barrel distortion
________ focus lets you use a digital camera's monitor to focus
live view
_____________ shows an image projected onto a sensor in real time
live view focus
a technique that lets you keep the subject that is moving toward you well focused is known as
follow focus
a ______ focal length increases the angle of view and shows more of a scene than a normal lens used from the same position
most modern photographic lenses are based on the ______ lens
a _____ lens collects a large number of light rays from any single point on an object in fron of the lens and refracts them so that they converge at a single point behind the lens
term for bending
_________ acts as both rays and waves
the 2 focusing techniques that let you control the depth of field are
zone focusing and focusing on the hyperfocal distance
________ lets you set the depth of field in advance of shooting
zone focusing
_____________ lenses often produce better portraits
long lenses
when using a long lens for a portrait, how far away should you stand?
at least 6 feet
Japanese for blurring
refers to the way an out of focus subject looks in the photograph, depends on the shape of the aperture and design of the lens
sends out a beam of infrared waves which bounce back to measure distance to the subject
active autofocus
lens shades should match the _______________ of the lens
focal length
a lens shade that doesn't fit a lens can either be
too wide: insufficient or too small: causes vignetting
lets you set the depth of field in advance of shooting and is really useful when you want to shoot rapidly without refocusing and can predict where the action will take place
zone focusing
__________ focusing works best with a normal or short focal lengths since a long lens may have too little depth of field to make the technique practical
zone focusing
__________ will give you a maximum depth and will objects as sharp as possible from the foreground to the far distance
focusing on the hyperfocal distance
__________ is done by turning the focusing ring so that the infinity mark falls within the depth of field for the f-stop
focusing on the hyperfocal distance
the hyperfocal distance is _______ for every aperture
a technique that is used to maintain sharp focus on a subject that is moving towards you
follow focus
an optical spot caused by a cone of light rays from a lens not coming to a perfect focus when imaging a source point
circle of confusion
a lens of longer focal length produces ____ depth of field than a shorter lens used at the same f-stop because the relative aperture is a larger opening on a longer lens than it is on a shorter lens
relative aperture is also known as the
f-stop number
to calculate the f-stop number you would:
take the focal length of the lens divided by the aperture diameter
to calculate the relative aperture you would
take the focal length of the lens divided by the aperture diameter
you can control the depth of field by (3 ways)
changing to a shorter focal length lens, changing aperture or by stepping back from the subject
normally, the depth of field extends ____ in front of the plane of critical focus and _____ behind it
1/3, 2/3
when focusing very close to the subject, there is ____ of the depth of field in front of the plane of critical focus and ____ behind it
1/2, 1/2
an auto focus system can be fooled if
something moves in between what you were focused on and the camera
______ auto focus looks at an image inside the camera based on the principle that contrast on the focal plane is greatest when the subject is sharpest
exposure = ________ (?) x __________ (?)
intensity (aperture) x time (shutter speed)
a _____ gets a reading of the light reflected off the subject
reflected light meter
a reflected light meter is used by aiming the sensor _______
at the subject
a ________ measures the amount of light falling on the subject
incidental light meter
an incidental light meteris used by aiming the sensor ________
at the camer from the position of the subject
a _____ read light reflected from a very small area of the subkect
spot meter
a ______ measures the output from the brief burst of light of an electronic flash
flash meter
a _____ measures the color of a light source
color temperature meter
a _______ meter reads most of the image area and computes an exposure that is the average of all of the tones in the scene
averaging meter