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a set of flash cards taken directly from the CPP certification book information.

setting where you set the shutter speed and the camera sets the aperture

shutter priority automatic exposure

setting where you set the aperture and the camera sets the shutter speed

aperture priority automatic exposure

a negative that is flat or low in contrast , meaning the highlights are not very much more dense than the shadows, is said to be

an underdevleoped negative

if your negatives are often flat, to correct you can

increase the film developement at 20% more than the normal time

a low contrast negative can be from (2 things)

low contrast in the original scene or from underdeveloping the negative

a high contrast negative may result from (2 things)

high contrast in the original scene or from overdeveloping the film

if your negatives are often contrasty, to correct you can

decrease the development at 80% of the normal time

a negative with a great deal of contrast or difference between the shadows and highlights, where the highlights are dense and the shadows are very thin

overdeveloped negative

a negative that has dense (very dark) highlights and more than adequate density in the shadows

overexposed negative

if your negatives are often dense you can correct by

decreasing the exposure

to decrease exposure one stop you could multiply the ISO by ___


a negative with little or no detail in the shadow areas that is thin or light overall is known as a

underexposed negative

if your negatives are often thin, you can correct by

increasing the exposure by setting a lower film speed

dividing the ISO by 2 ______exposure one stop


a negative that has a good seperation of tones in highlights, midtones and shadows is said to be a

normal negative

the difference in density between thinner (lighter parts) of the negative is known as


if your negatives are consistently very thin or very dense, you should

check your meter

the amount of silver built up in the negative overall or in a particular part of the negative is known as


a negative that is darker is said to be

more dense

a negative that is lighter is said to be


a _____ lens is useful for extremely close-up shots


_________lenses are popular because they combine a range of focal lengths into one lens


________lenses are corrected for abberations that occur at close focusing distances


________ lenses allow you to focus at a very close range


a _________ lens exaggerates the size differences between objects that are near and far from the camera


a _______ lens has a barrell distortio inherent in its design


the bending of the straight lines at the edge of an image is known as

barrel distortion

________ focus lets you use a digital camera's monitor to focus

live view

_____________ shows an image projected onto a sensor in real time

live view focus

a technique that lets you keep the subject that is moving toward you well focused is known as

follow focus

a ______ focal length increases the angle of view and shows more of a scene than a normal lens used from the same position


most modern photographic lenses are based on the ______ lens


a _____ lens collects a large number of light rays from any single point on an object in fron of the lens and refracts them so that they converge at a single point behind the lens


term for bending


_________ acts as both rays and waves


the 2 focusing techniques that let you control the depth of field are

zone focusing and focusing on the hyperfocal distance

________ lets you set the depth of field in advance of shooting

zone focusing

_____________ lenses often produce better portraits

long lenses

when using a long lens for a portrait, how far away should you stand?

at least 6 feet

Japanese for blurring


refers to the way an out of focus subject looks in the photograph, depends on the shape of the aperture and design of the lens


sends out a beam of infrared waves which bounce back to measure distance to the subject

active autofocus

lens shades should match the _______________ of the lens

focal length

a lens shade that doesn't fit a lens can either be

too wide: insufficient or too small: causes vignetting

lets you set the depth of field in advance of shooting and is really useful when you want to shoot rapidly without refocusing and can predict where the action will take place

zone focusing

__________ focusing works best with a normal or short focal lengths since a long lens may have too little depth of field to make the technique practical

zone focusing

__________ will give you a maximum depth and will objects as sharp as possible from the foreground to the far distance

focusing on the hyperfocal distance

__________ is done by turning the focusing ring so that the infinity mark falls within the depth of field for the f-stop

focusing on the hyperfocal distance

the hyperfocal distance is _______ for every aperture


a technique that is used to maintain sharp focus on a subject that is moving towards you

follow focus

an optical spot caused by a cone of light rays from a lens not coming to a perfect focus when imaging a source point

circle of confusion

a lens of longer focal length produces ____ depth of field than a shorter lens used at the same f-stop because the relative aperture is a larger opening on a longer lens than it is on a shorter lens


relative aperture is also known as the

f-stop number

to calculate the f-stop number you would:

take the focal length of the lens divided by the aperture diameter

to calculate the relative aperture you would

take the focal length of the lens divided by the aperture diameter

you can control the depth of field by (3 ways)

changing to a shorter focal length lens, changing aperture or by stepping back from the subject

normally, the depth of field extends ____ in front of the plane of critical focus and _____ behind it

1/3, 2/3

when focusing very close to the subject, there is ____ of the depth of field in front of the plane of critical focus and ____ behind it

1/2, 1/2

an auto focus system can be fooled if

something moves in between what you were focused on and the camera

______ auto focus looks at an image inside the camera based on the principle that contrast on the focal plane is greatest when the subject is sharpest


exposure = ________ (?) x __________ (?)

intensity (aperture) x time (shutter speed)

a _____ gets a reading of the light reflected off the subject

reflected light meter

a reflected light meter is used by aiming the sensor _______

at the subject

a ________ measures the amount of light falling on the subject

incidental light meter

an incidental light meteris used by aiming the sensor ________

at the camer from the position of the subject

a _____ read light reflected from a very small area of the subkect

spot meter

a ______ measures the output from the brief burst of light of an electronic flash

flash meter

a _____ measures the color of a light source

color temperature meter

a _______ meter reads most of the image area and computes an exposure that is the average of all of the tones in the scene

averaging meter

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