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Social Psych. Chapter 5
Terms in this set (47)
why do we use heuristics?
as mental shortcuts, save time and energy
what's a down fall of heuristics?
we often over apply them
what's an example of an availability heuristic?
thinking of ten reasons we love someone, often can't right of the bat, creates a bias for when we're asked how long we will be with them--> we're likely to say a shorter amount of time if were asked right after word because 10 reasons weren't readily available
what is definition of availability heuristic?
estimate likelihood based on how easily instances come to mind
what is the definition of priming
recent external cues and experiences can influence us without our awareness by making particular schemas, ideas and associations accessible
what does priming influence
behaviors, attitudes and judgments
what is subliminal priming?
more information gets in than we are conscious of
how does subliminal priming work?
fleeting, i.e. 20 seconds on screen, advertising, short term effects where the initial goal state matters, have to have already wanted a product being advertised for product to work, has to fit in to 'routine' behavior, subtle
is there subliminal priming in movie theaters?
mute point... subtle, would only get popcorn if we already wanted it and it was shown on screen, effects would only last until end of movie if that
what effect is associated with subliminal priming effectiveness?
the mere exposure effect: we like something more if we've already seen it, we're familiar with it
we perceive the stimuli but are unaware of the effect
what is the difference between subliminal and superliminal priming?
subliminal is covert sensory info, superliminal is overt sensory info, in both we don't perceive effects and will only effect behavior if those habits were within a normal range of expected behavior socially
what is an example of subliminal priming?
old advertisements with flashes of coca cola in film reels we couldn't see, flash of Chinese character we couldn't see, go get coke because you were thirsty and you briefly saw it flash on screen
what is an example of superliminal priming?
walking passed the GNC and not putting whipped cream on your late, smelling pine sol and picking up more crumbs, seeing an old person and then walking slower
how do we problem solve in society with heuristics (list 2)?/heuristics in making judgements in general
Base Rate fallacy
we ignore statistical info and look at descriptive information, the fallacy is ignoring statistical information
Example of base rate fallacy
we ignore statistics about the number of psych. major at a school and pay attention to descriptive info of chris as being introverted
using prototypes to decde likeli hood and make classifications of someone or something, happens after base rate fallacy
example of representativeness heuristic
assume chris is computer science major or something 'nerdy',
anchoring and adjustment
we tend to use initial starting point to make estimate: given an anchor we adjust what our judgement to be closer to anchor than what we would have previously because we've been primed with info that makes our judgement bias
what is length of Mississippi river?
2320 miles (but given anchor of 100,000 we'd say higher)
what is problem with anchor and adjustment
we adjust too much and end up being not far enough from potentially inaccurate anchor
Counter factual thinking
is "if only thinking" thinking mental time travel allows us to imagine different oucome based on alternative pasts
when does counterfactual thinking occur?
when we can easily picture an alternative past
especially occurs if it follows unusual behavior (if only I didn't do this weird thing, why did I do that!)
what is the result of counterfactual thinking? 1 positive and 1 negative
the negative effect is regret, but the positive outcome is it highlights paths to future sucess
what are contrast effects?
using a salient comparison can impact how we make judgment
examples of contrast effects
75$ sweater marked down from 100$ suddenly seems cheaper, or we of ten have social comparison, people win silver and get pissed at Olympics, seeing playboy models make men feel less attracted to their own partners
What are two types of framing effects?
negative framing: focuses on negative outcomes (loss frame)
positive framing: focuses on positive outcomes (gain frame)
How are the two types of framing used in health messages most effectively?
loss frame is used for detection behaviors: not doing regular checks increases tumor spread
gain frame works best for prevention behavior: wearing sunscreen everyday will decrease chances of getting skin cancer
What is a general example of framing in advertising?
80% fat free vs. 20% fat full
memories of events and stimuli change to fit with the new information
what was a study of misinformation effects?
people were told to look at car crashes and recount incident: when cars were smashed into eachother vs. hit one another in questionnaire -->people lied and said accident was worse when word smashed was used vs. said wasn't as bad when word hit was used
true or false: misleadiding cues from external sources influences and change memories from our past
true : misinformation effect
How does our mood effect memories?
when you're in a good mood you have a rosy reconstruction, if you're feeling negative or depressed--> you think the past was bad, if you're looking for improvement you'll think the past was worse in comparison to now than it was
how does mood influence how we think?
when happy you focus on big picture, use heuristics, when sad your very detail focus (I theorize this to be because we're working to get into a happy mood harder not because of the harsh nature of reality, realities always beyond our scope of emotional perspective, we can make practical decision about how to feel about reality but that's based on what state we make the best decisions in, and we make the best decisions when we're in a positive place because we're prepared to find the good for us and others)
with only a little information about a person we can make rather accurate judgments
examples of thin slicing (3)
short silent video clips and teacher ratings, dorm rooms and personality ratings, pictures of faces and ceo success, pictures of some facial features and sexual orientation
Implicit Personality Theory
the belief that certain traits characteristics and behaviors 'go together', helps us form larger picture than we have
sensory priming can also influence judgment of people in these situations where you're using characteristics example...
warm cup of coffee makes you like professor more (this was totally discredited she shouldn't be using this as an example in class, this experiment wasn't replicated)
and example of implicit personality theory
we assume that if someone is a ham for the camera they'll also be extroverted, outgoing, funny, goofy
If you ask someone if there extroverted of introverted it can prime them
you can ask questions in a way that makes people pay attention to aspects of themselves that you might not if you asked the question in a different way
searching for information that will support your views
seeing relationships and patterns that don't exist
the longer we have beliefs the stronger they will be (double check this)
"I knew it all along effect" after presented information we're likely to think that we always knew it
our confidence impedes our ability to select information
when we think we're some way, or that somethings going with ourselves we behave in a way that is consistent with that and the effects actually take place on us
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