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Exam 3: Chapters 31, 32, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43
Terms in this set (63)
When considering the wormlike phyla within the protostomes, which feature is most useful in distinguishing groups?
Feeding structures or mouthparts
What is the function of the arthropod exoskeleton?
It provides protection and functions in locomotion.
One trait that is shared by the Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa is
both groups are bilaterally symmetric triploblasts with the protostome pattern of development.
You find what you believe is a new species of animal. Which characteristic would enable you to argue that it is more closely related to a flatworm than it is to a roundworm?
It has no coelom.
The body cavity type for arthropods and mollusk can best be described as
a reduced coelom.
In adult arthropods, the hemocoel
provides space for the internal organs to grow and function.
Predict why annelids and arthropods were thought to be closely related, before the phylogenetic analyses in the late 1990s.
They have segmented bodies, unlike other protostomes.
The protostome developmental sequence arose just once in evolutionary history, resulting in two main subgroups--Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. What does this suggest?
Division of these two groups occurred after the protostome developmental sequence appeared.
Why is it logical that Platyhelminthes have flattened bodies?
A flat body provides a large surface area for gas exchange, which compensates for their like of gas-exchange organs.
Nematode worms and annelid worms share which of the following features?
A digestive tract with two openings(a mouth and an anus).
Which of the following animal groups is entirely aquatic?
What is a characteristic of larval echinoderms?
What is a characteristic of all chordates at some point during their life cycle?
Due to its system of air sacs connected to the lungs, the respiratory system of birds is arguably the most effective respiratory system of all air-breathers. Upon inhalation, air first flows into posterior air sacs, then into the lungs, and then into anterior air sacs on the way to being exhaled. Thus, there is one-way flow of air through the lungs, along thousands of tubules called parabronchi.
Which type of bird is most likely to benefit from air sacs which reduce its weight?
Birds, such as geese, which migrate great distances.
What do all deuterostomes have in common?
The pore(blastopore) formed during gastrulation becomes the anus.
What trait(s) define the vertebrates?
Vertebrae and cranium
Brown et al. and Morwood et al. reported in 2004 that they had found skeletal remains of a previously unknown type of hominin, now dubbed Homo floresiensis, on the Indonesian island of Flores. These hominins were small (approximately 1 meter tall) with small braincases (approximately 380 cubic centimeters) as compared with other hominins. The remains of H. floresiensis were found alongside handmade stone tools and the remains of dwarf elephants that also inhabited the island, suggesting that H. floresiensis was able both to make tools and to coordinate the hunting of animals much larger than itself. H. floresiensis is estimated to have lived at the site where the remains were found from at least 38,000 years ago to 18,000 years ago.
What would be the most feasible method of figuring out to which other hominin species H. floresiensis was most closely related?
Compare the skeletal morphology of H. floresiensis to that of each of the other hominin species.
Most species of hominins are known only from Africa. Which species have been found in other parts of the world as well?
H. erectus, H. neanderthalensis, and H. floresiensis
In what respect do hominins differ from all other anthropoids?
There is some evidence that pharyngeal gill slits occur in certain species of echinoderms that appear early in the fossil record. If confirmed, what do these data suggest?
Pharyngeal gill slits were present in the earliest echinoderms and lost later.
When a cell is in equilibrium with its environment, which of the following occurs for substances that can diffuse through the cell?
There is random movement of substances into and out of the cell.
The intercellular concentration of three electrolytes is compared with the concentration of these electrolytes in fluid eliminated from the shark rectal gland as indicated in the table. Based on this data, which of the following is a likely function of the rectal gland?
The rectal gland is able to concentrate Na+, K+, and Cl-.
Through studies of insect Malpighian tubules, researchers found that K+ accumulated on the inner face of the tubule, against its concentration gradient. What can you infer about the mechanism of transport?
Movement of potassium into the lumen of the Malpighian tubules is an energy-requiring process.
What is the function of the osmotic gradient found in the kidney? The osmotic gradient allows for
the precise control of the retention of water and electrolytes.
Freshwater fish reside in hypotonic environments. They do not drink water, and they excrete large volumes of hypotonic urine in an effort to osmoregulate. How do they obtain an adequate supply of electrolytes?
Gill filaments take up additional electrolytes from freshwater.
The primary nitrogenous waste excreted by birds is
To maintain homeostasis freshwater fish must
excrete large quantities of water.
For filtration to take place through the fenestrated capillaries of the renal corpuscle,
there must be a greater pressure inside the glomerulus than in the renal tubules.
A potassium ion gradient is set up in insect Malpighian tubules through an active transport process. As a result, potassium concentration is higher in the lumen of the tubules than in hemolymph. How would the potassium gradient affect water movement?
There would be a net movement of water into the lumen of the tubules.
What role do chloride cells play in osmoregulation of marine fish with bony skeletons?
They are involved in excretion of excess salt.
A moth preparing for flight on a cold morning may warm its flight muscles via
Natural selection involves energetic trade-offs between
high survival rates of offspring and the cost of parental care.
An elephant and a mouse are running in full sunlight, and both overheat by the same amount above their normal body temperatures. When they move into the shade and rest, which animal will cool down faster?
The mouse will because it has the higher surface-area-to-volume ratio.
A researcher is setting up an experiment to measure basal metabolic rate in prairie voles(Microtus ochrogaster--a small rodent). Which of the following would be the best set of conditions for the voles immediately before and during the measurement?
House the animals in a cage with no food for a few hours before measurement; conduct measurements in a room the same temperature as the room where housed.
The body tissue that consists largely of material located outside of cells is
A pseudo stratified epithelium is composed of
a single layer of cells of variable height.
Which term best describes an animal that, although generating a significant amount of heat through metabolism, does not maintain a constant body temperature?
Which of the following is an example of negative feedback?
When the level of glucose in the blood increases, the pancreas produces and releases the hormone insulin. Insulin acts to decrease blood glucose. As blood glucose decreases, the rate of production and release of insulin decreases as blood glucose decreases.
Most of the exchange surfaces of multicellular animals are lined with
There are advantages and disadvantages to adaptations. Animals that are endothermic are likely to be at the greatest disadvantage in
environments with variable and limited food sources.
If a man was 1.8m tall with a BMI of 30, how much weight would he have to lose to reduce his risk of type II diabetes by 10%
What would happen to someone treated with a drug that inhibited the release of bile salts?
The person would lose weight.
Which minnows, herbivorous or carnivorous, should exhibit higher cellulase activity in the gut?
Cellulase activity is higher in herbivorous minnows because their diets contain _____ cellulose than the carnivores' diets. Cellulase is produced by gut _____.
What is the relationship between diet and gut length in minnows?
The relative gut length of herbivorous minnows is greater than that of carnivorous minnows.
Which step in the production of stomach acid requires energy in the form of ATP?
Movement of protons(H+) in the lumen of the stomach.
What are the effects of a molecules that blocks the sodium-glucose co-transporter in the small intestine?
Increased feces production due to the passing of unabsorbed glucose.
How does a person with type I diabetes mellitus develop high blood glucose?
No insulin is produced.
Why did researchers inject RNA into frog eggs rather than rabbit epithelial cells?
Frog eggs do not normally possess a sodium-glucose co-transporter.
What is the correct response if the blood sugar drops too low for a person with type I diabetes mellitus?
Give the person a candy bar.
Why is the surface area of the small intestine so high compared to the stomach?
To better absorb nutrients.
What is typically disrupted in individuals with type II diabetes mellitus?
Insulin stimulating cells in liver and muscle to synthesize glycogen from glucose.
The specialization of the pharyngeal jaws of cichlids for different diets represents a trade-off in function because
the more specialized pharyngeal jaws are for one diet, the less adapted they are for the ingestion of other foods.
The plasma proteins in humans
maintain the blood's osmotic pressure.
At an atmospheric pressure of 870 mm Hg with 21% oxygen, the partial pressure of oxygen is
182 mm Hg
The only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart are the
Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize
Circulatory systems compensate for
the slow rate at which diffusion occurs over large distances.
Carbon dioxide levels in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid affect pH. This enables the organism to sense a disturbance in gas levels as
the medulla oblongata, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing.
Atmospheric pressure at sea level is equal to a column of 760 mm Hg. Oxygen makes up 21% of the atmosphere volume. The partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in such conditions is
160 mm Hg
A significant increase in the amount of interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary beds of a human's lungs will cause
a decrease in the amount of oxygen moving from the lungs into the blood.
To become bound to hemoglobin for transport in a mammal, atmospheric molecules of oxygen must cross
five membranes--in and out of the cell lining the lung, in and out of the endothelial cell lining an alveolar capillary, and into the red blood cell--to bind with hemoglobin
Cyanide poisons mitochondria by blocking the final step in the electron transport chain. Human red blood cells placed in an isotonic solution containing cyanide are likely to
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