Science Praxis 2 NEW
Terms in this set (268)
the most common gas in earths atmosphere
fats and carbohydrates
these two biological molecules in humans are metabolized by the body as sources of energy
cold-blooded vertebrate typically living on land but breeding in water
Example; Salamander, frog, toads
one earth year
one complete revolution of earth around the sun
Negatively charged particles
Example; a battery in a circuit provides energy to the electrons in the wires of the circuit
distance between earth and moon
The astronomical unit is the average distance from Earth to the Sun which equals 1AU
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
considered a renewable energy resource
occurs when one substance turns into a new substance
example; when an egg is cooked
a star that suddenly increases greatly in brightness because of a catastrophic explosion that ejects most of its mass.
Life cycle of a massive star
3. New/Stable State Star
4. Super Giant
5. Super Nova
6. Neutron Star/Pulsar
7. Black Hole
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment includes the SWEAT GLANDS, LUNGS, KIDNEYS
mass x velocity
Defense of a space against encroachment by other individuals.
the preying of one animal on others.
morphological adaptation in which one species evolves to resemble another species for protection or other advantages
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed
Occurs when two continental plates(tec tonic plates) collide (convergent boundary), squeezing the crust into mountain ranges
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
results from random changes in genetic information
**must be present in a population before natural selection can act upon the population
weight and mass
weight is dependent on gravity, objects weight on the earth and moon will be different because of gravity but mass stays the same
the boundary where two weight masses converge
a localized and violently destructive windstorm occurring over land characterized by a funnel-shaped cloud extending toward the ground
A line on a weather map that joins places that have the same air pressure
defends the body against pathogens
A conglomeration of billions of cells specifically designed to provide a communication network within the human body. Where the brain and spinal cord are found
system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide using the lungs
Consists of glands that control many of the body's activities by producing hormones.
A homogeneous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a lattice.
all biotic and abiotic factors in an area of earth
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
Full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
First and largest category used to classify organisms
The bending of a wave as it passes at an angle from one medium to another
the process or action by which one thing absorbs or is absorbed by another.
the bouncing back of a ray of light, sound, or heat when the ray hits a surface that it does not go through
The process of getting more in return for less; for example, growing more food on a smaller plot of land.
tropical ocean water
where hurricanes are most likely to form, has large amount of water and moist air
ph of an acid
less than 7, which is neutral
ph of bases
greater than 7
primary consumers (herbivores)
animals that primarily graze on grass
secondary consumers (carnivores)
obtain their energy by eating primary consumers
Organisms that produce their own food
rising sea levels
increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can cause
When either the Moon or the Earth falls into the shadow of the other.
phases of the moon
new, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full, waning gibbous, third quarter, waning crescent
the regular rise and fall of the ocean's surface influenced by the moon's gravity pulling on earth
Violent eruptions of particles and radiation from the surface of the Sun
sound waves with a high frequency
low frequency sound waves
a hot spring in which water intermittently boils, sending a tall column of water and steam into the air. water is at a higher temperature than the land
A body of water that is surrounded by land it can be fresh water or salt water.
large bodies of salt water
are large, natural streams of fresh water.
insects that regulate their internal body temperature by adjusting the position of their wings
Grams per milliliter
The unit used to measure the density of a liquid
unit for mass
one thousandth of a liter
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
one of the major products of photosynthesis
Group of closely related classes, organisms that are in the same biological class
A group of similar species
Example; Felis catus
Group of genera that share many characteristics
A group of organisms that are closely related and can mate to produce fertile offspring
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
A type of igneous rock that contains air bubbles
protons and neutrons
The nucleus of an atom contains
tiny hair-like extensions that increase the surface area of the root allowing it to absorbs more water and nutrients
an iron fence rusting over time, goes through a chemical change
x ray image
more dense structures show up white (bones and organs), less dense structures show up black (lungs and fat)
example; finds broken bones
the attraction between positive and negative charges
Describes a force between particles with opposite electrical charges that causes them to push apart from one another
cleaning salt water spill
wipe up with paper towels from outer edge toward the center to minimize the spread of the spill
The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
the amount of matter in an object
A force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact
the speed of an object in a particular direction
found in the cells of all plant and algal
facts about stars
1. the sun is a star
2. various stars have different surface temperatures
3. some stars exist for longer periods than other stars
instrument used to measure volume of a liquid
readily attracts to a magnet
the planet closest to the sun
A planet similar in size and mass to Earth with crater, volcanoes and an atmosphere that is toxic.
second-largest and sixth planet from the Sun; has a complex ring system, at least 31 moons, and a thick atmosphere made mostly of hydrogen and helium
the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury
A group of ecosystems with similar climates and organisms
example; tropical rain forest
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.
A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.
A fossil fuel that forms underground from partially decomposed plant material
**high in carbon dioxide
A fossil fuel in the gaseous state
*high in carbon dioxide
liquid fossil fuel; oil
*high in carbon dioxide
a small rocky body orbiting the sun
The outer layer of the sun's atmosphere.
A scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves.
A vertebrate whose body temperature is regulated by its internal heat, and that has skin covered with hair or fur and glands that produce milk to feed its young.
maritime air mass
A humid air mass that forms over oceans
iron and steel
materials strongly attracted to magnets
a way of life that requires little movement or exercise
process by which scientists formulate a hypothesis, gather data by observation and experimentation, and come to a conclusion
Protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to support movement. Made up of bones and joints
Consists of skeletal muscles, tendons that connect muscles to bones, and ligaments that attach bones together to form joint
best known for research with electricity
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
Notable female Polish/French chemist credited with the discovery of the radioactive elements polonium and radium. also investigated the properties of radioactive elements and their compounds.
father of modern genetics
Transports oxygen, waste, nutrients, hormones, heat, etc... around the body
Breaks down food into smaller molecules. Absorbs these nutrients into the body.
a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
A device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy
A piece of glass that separates white light into colors of the spectrum.
an electrical device that slows the flow of charge in a circuit
A protein hormone synthesized in the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into tissues
A hormone produced by the ovaries which acts with estrogen to bring about the menstrual cycle.
Female sex hormone
Male sex hormone
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
A force that pulls objects toward each other, holds the stars in a galaxy relatively close to one another.
A form of energy caused by the movement of electrons.
The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
The force of attraction or repulsion of magnetic materials
absence of air resistance
objects fall at a constant acceleration, or same rate
multi cellular organisms that have the ability to carry out photosynthesis.
multi cellular heterotrophic organisms that lack cell walls
A kingdom made up of nongreen, eukaryotic organisms that have no means of movement, reproduce by using spores, and get food by breaking down substances in their surroundings and absorbing the nutrients
**mold on bread
A eukaryotic organism that cannot be classified as an animal, plant, or fungus.
force of attraction or repulsion between charged objects.
Example; Clothes that are tumbled and dried in a clothes dryer often carry static charges.
an attractive force that acts between any two objects
strong nuclear force
the powerful attractive force that binds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus
the attraction or repulsion between magnetic poles
has short generation times and large populations, and populations that typically adapt quickly to environmental changes.
The amount of space an object takes up
A measure of the force of gravity on an object
the degree of compactness of a substance.
Gas to liquid, clouds are formed
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface.
Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant
Water flowing off the land into bodies of surface water.
the water cycle
A reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents
**increases the genetic diversity of the organisms in a population through recombination of alleles.
A reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.
a sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action. (California, san adreas fault)
The sudden and rapid movement of a large amount of material down a slope
A violently rotating column of air stretching from a cloud to the ground (Oklahoma, ideally situated for the formation of the super cell thunderstorm)
fierce tropical storms with strong winds (Texas, located on the gulf of mexico)
Negatively charged particles, play a major role in the formation of chemical bonds, such as covalent bonds and ionic bonds.
the only planet in the solar system with a significant amount of liquid water on the surface. Liquid water is required for the development of a complex biosphere.
a measure of the acidity of an aqueous solution.
the mass of one mole of a pure substance
physical property, smell
Before a dividing cell can begin mitosis, the DNA of the cell must undergo this process.....Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
a separation into parts or fragments, disunity, decay
Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
the volume of open spaces in rock or soil, related to the amount of open space (holes) in rock and is a measure of the rock's ability to hold water.
A measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
the color of a mineral's powder
The way a mineral reflects light from its surface
Smallest particle of an element, most of the volume is empty space.
x linked disorders
disorder is on the X chromosome and can affect both female and males depending on the carrier.
cloud of gas and dust
Scientists believe that the solar system was formed when a ________________________was squeezed together by gravitational waves that resulted from the explosion of a nearby star.
Energy that is stored and held in readiness
the energy an object has due to its motion
Asexual reproductive or resting cell capable of developing into a new organism without fusion with another cell, in contrast to a gamete
****enable asexual reproduction in mosses.
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
phase that occurs when all of the Moon's surface facing Earth reflects light
Occurs at a full moon when Earth is directly between the moon and the sun
Moon phase that occurs when the Moon is between Earth and the Sun, at which point the Moon cannot be seen because its lighted half is facing the Sun and its dark side faces Earth.
Moon phase in which exactly half of the Moon appears to be illuminated (occurs when the Moon has gone one quarter of the way around Earth).
The waning phase of the moon viewed from Earth where half of the moon's lit side is visible
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
process in which substances are transformed into other substances. The products of a chemical reaction usually have properties that are different from those of the reactants.
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, & Neptune. Called Gas Giants. less dense than the planets that are closest to the Sun.
Small, rocky planets that orbit closest to the sun including Mercury, Venus, Earth, & Mars
cell structures made only of DNA and protein
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
Cell with a nucleus (surrounded by its own membrane) and other internal organelles.
cell lacking a nucleus and most other organelles
vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
***provides evidence that Earth's inner core is solid
motion of rock on moon
Objects released near the Moon's surface will accelerate toward the Moon with a constant acceleration.
mutation of a gene
sometimes results in birth defects or other health problems
measure of the average molecular kinetic energy of a substance.
male reproductive organ that produces sperm and hormones
female, produces eggs
Regulates the level of sugar in the blood
the approximate length of time it takes Earth to rotate once about its axis
the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas
the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil
The total energy of all the particles of an object.
Energy stored in chemical bonds
Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom
All the living organisms that inhabit an environment
Nonliving components of environment.
insect life cycle
egg, larva, pupa, adult... metamorphic stages in an insect's life
biotic and abiotic interaction
A plant absorbing sunlight
Two abiotic interactions
An icicle melting on a warm day
Positively charged particles
system composed of many stars, dust, and gas, which is held together by gravitational attraction
product of cellular respiration and is used for energy transfer in cells
a colorless, odorless gas produced by burning carbon and organic compounds and by respiration. It is naturally present in air (about 0.03 percent) and is absorbed by plants in photosynthesis.
gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells
occurs when the Moon is between Earth and the Sun
they anchor the plant to the ground
they absorb minerals
they store starch
A reaction between an acid and a base
A rapid reaction between oxygen and fuel that results in fire
A chemical reaction that breaks down compounds into simpler products.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
the state of being separated and protected; material that protects against heat or electricity
a process that occurs when an unstable atomic nucleus changes into another more stable nucleus by emitting radiation
tectonic plate boundaries
Frequent earthquakes in an area may indicate....
tropical rain forest
biome characterized by large amounts of rainfall, thick canopies and understories, little nutrients in the soil, and high biodiversity
biome at high mountain altitudes, which has vegetation & climate similar to those of the Arctic tundra
(though no permafrost)
biome characterized by deep, nutrient-rich soil that supports many grass species
A type of desert where vegetation is sparse, winters are cold. summers are warm or hot, and precipitation is low.
the sprouting of a seed, processes in a plant's life cycle involves the emergence of leaves and roots from a seed
the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
The transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants
a type of plant that is blooming.
an arrangement of elements in which the elements are separated into groups based on a set of repeating properties, (grouped based on similar chemical properties)
vertebrates that live on land, scales cover body, lay eggs, cold blooded
a small arthropod animal that has six legs and generally one or two pairs of wings.
Living things with vertebra, hair or fur, gives birth to babies, feed the babies milk form their bodies & warm blooded.
hydrogen and helium
two most abundant elements in the universe/sun
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
involves the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between two atoms
A kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that lack cell walls, can usually move around, and quickly respond to their environment.
A kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that are usually green, have cell walls made of cellulose, cannot move around, and use the sun's energy to make sugar by photosynthesis.
having two different alleles for a trait
Having two identical alleles for a particular gene
tree fall gap
A hole in the canopy layer caused by a fallen tree, which allows light to reach lower levels in the rainforest
**provides a habitat in which shade-intolerant plants can grow
water in the form of a gas, average distance between water molecules is greater when water is in the gaseous phase (molecules are further apart)
hydrogen bonds constantly break and reform (molecules closer together)
A measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid (found where theres more evaporation)
Group of similar families
differences in gene expression
counts for structural and functional differences between the skin cells, smooth muscle cells, and liver cells of the same person
the ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells
the sum of all chromosomes in a cell of a given type
that rate at which the DNA of an individual will mutate or a species
A change in sound frequency caused by motion of the sound source, motion of the listener, or both.
Fuel derived from radioactive materials that give off energy
***produces the least amount of carbon dioxide
A liquid fossil fuel formed from marine organisms that is burned to obtain energy and used in the manufacture of plastics.
**high in carbon dioxide
British scientist who defined the laws of motion, discovered gravity, experimented with optics, invented differential calculus and wrote "Principia"
A Polish astronomer who proved that the Ptolemaic system was inaccurate, he proposed the theory that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the solar system.
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
underground layers of porous rock that hold groundwater.
Water flows through the air spaces between grains easily
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
1.stores and transmits genetic information
2.molecules have a double helix structure
3.packaged into structures called chromosomes
lowest layer of atmosphere it's where all weather occurs. 1st layer
The second-lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere; the ozone layer is located in the upper stratosphere. 2nd layer
The layer of Earth's atmosphere immediately above the stratosphere, 3rd layer
Layer farthest from earths surface. The outer layer of the thermosphere, extending outward into space.
The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases
A technology that includes the process of manipulating or altering the genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes that would not occur naturally.