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High levels may causes cardiac disease, liver problems, low thyroid, or diabetes


High level may cause arterial disease

Blood urea nitrogen

Measures waste produced in the liver and excreted by the kidneys. Most specific lab for hydration.
High levels might indicate kidney problems/ renal disease, dehydration, GI bleeding. Maybe caused by high protein diets, CHF, or strenuous exercise.
Low levels may be caused by pregnancy.


Substance produced by muscle. This test is done to diagnose kidney dysfunction.
Most specific lab for renal damage if elevated.
High level may indicate impaired kidney function, renal failure.
some medications may increase the levels. S&s: coma.


Calcium is controlled in the blood by the parathyroid glands and the kidneys, and is found mostly in the bones. it is important for clotting and nerve and cell activity.

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