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Mr. Raff's Study Guide for Circulatory System Test

Study Guide for the Circulatory System Test
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What does the circulatory system transport?
Nutrients ( glucose, fatty acid + glycerol, amino acids), blood, oxygen, CO2, H2O, hormones, antibodies, waste (urea and salts)
Parts of circulatory system
Heart- pump, blood vessels, blood
2 types of circulatory system
Open circulatory system and Closed circulatory system
Open circulatory system
Blood is not contained in blood vessels ( ex. grasshopper)
Closed circulatory system
Blood is contained in blood vessels ( ex. humans)
Heart
Is a muscular organ - 1. smooth muscle 2. striated muscle( react quickly to charges) -
Where is the heart located?
Beneath the sternum, tilted to the left
What does a heart do?
Pumps blood to entire body
The heart is composed of four chambers
Left atrium (top), right atrium (top), left ventricle ( bottom), right ventricle ( bottom)
Right atrium
Receives blood from the body, and the blood is high in CO2 ( deoxygenated)
Right ventricle
Receives blood from the right atrium, and pumps blood to the lungs
Left atrium
Receives blood from the lungs, and the blood is rich in oxygen ( oxygenated)
Left ventricle
Receive blood from left atrium, and pumps blood to the body
What do the arteries do?
Carry blood away from the blood away from the heart, and carry oxygenated blood
Arteries
Have thick walls, and are elastic
Examples of arteries
Aorta- largest artery, and pulmonary artery
Pulmonary artery
Carry blood to lungs, and carry deoxygenated blood
What do capillaries do?
They connect arteries to veins
Capillaries
Have thin walls, site of diffusion, and one cell thick
What do veins do?
Carry blood, and carry deoxygenated blood
Veins
Have thin walls, and are muscle contractions that force blood back to heart
Examples of veins
Vena Cavas, and Pulmonary veins
Vena Cavas
Largest veins, and bring blood back to heart
Pulmonary veins
Carry blood from lungs to heart and carry deoxygenated blood
Systemic circulatory
Heart --> Body --> Heart
Pumonary circulatory
Heart --> Lungs --> Heart
Coronary circulatory
Heart --> Heart --> Heart
bllod through body
Rt. atrium --> rt. ventricle --> pulmonary arteries --> lungs --> pulmonary veins --> lt. atrium --> lt. ventricle --> aorta--> body--> vena cava--> rt. atrium
Blood
Is a tissue, and is composed of platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells, and plasma
Plasma
45 % H2O, and carries the dissolved substances
Red blood cells
Made in bone marrow, have no nucleus, carry O2, and hemoglobin that binds O2
White blood cells
Made in bone marrow, have a nucleus, and fight infection ( phagocytosis)
Platelets
Fragments of blood cells, and clot blood
Blood types
A, B, AB - universal recipient, O- universal donor