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Dual Credit History - The Great Depression
Terms in this set (178)
Who was Herbert Hoover?
3rd conservative president, laissez faire capitalist, supports high tariffs. The most unlucky president
How did Hoover count on business cooperation in making reforms?
big in establishing a relationship between business and government.
What is Volunteerism?
many poor people were still around so they had these to help them out, it isn't enough
How did Stock market speculation contribute to the Great Depression?
not the only reason for the great depression, during the 1920 the value of stock went up. People were speculating money that they could afford to lose.
How did the Banks calling in loans contribute to the Great Depression?
people would borrow money to use on stocks.
What is Panic selling?
people started selling their stock because the prices started to go down.
How did economic weaknesses cause the depression?
there was a gap between the rich and the poor, the rich were still getting richer but the poor started to get more poor. The government relief on the poor buying necessities
How did Overproduction lead to the Great Depression?
businesses were wasting resource, they stopped when they realized they were wasting money, so they cut people.
How did weak farm prices contribute to the Great Depression?
farmers had massive debt, they started going bankrupt
How did poor banking practices contribute to the Great Depression?
bank loan to people who won't pay them back. Banks start to go bankrupt because of this.
What was the Global depression
Caused by World war 1 , America was benefitting after WWI, this meant that we couldn't trade overseas because of this.
What was the impact of the Great Depression?
GDP fell 40%, gross domestic product which is what the nation produces every year. Unemployment 25%,Bank failures- fewer loans being made.
What was the Human toll of the Great Depression?
Hoovervilles, Malnutrition, Diseases, Depression and suicide
a huge problem during the Great Depression because people couldn't afford food.
they got worse during the Great Depression due to bad living conditions.
Depression and suicide
rates went up for many reasons including family abandonment and depression and suicide
What were Hoovervilles?
communities of homeless people who lived on public land
How did Hoover respond to the Great Depression?
He took a traditional view, asked for business leader cooperation, turned to the city and state governments, created the National Credit Corporation
How did Hoover ask business leaders to help out after the Great Depression?
he told them to stop laying off workers to see if the economy would stop failing, they say yes
What did Hoover ask City and state governments to do to help out after the Great Depression?
he says that they have to do more to help poor people in their community, they say yes
What was the National Credit Corporation
they gave money to small struggling banks to keep them open, it was donated by big successful banks
Did any of Hoover's actions help ease the Great Depression?
What was the Reconstruction Finance Corporation
the best thing Hoover did, the US gives states money so they can solve the economic problems. This worked but not right away
What was the Public opinion about Hoover during this time?
the opinion turns against Hoover
How did Protests affect Hoover?
He was very sensitive, when public opinion turns against Hoover he gives up
What was the Farmers Holiday Association
a successful protest group, people didn't like this and some farmers didn't even like it.
What was the Bonus Army
more talking, a group of homeless and poor WWI veterans, they went to Washington DC to demand early payment of their wartime bonus. Hoover says no to paying them early.
Who was involved in The election of 1932?
Republican- Hoover, Democrat - Roosevelt
Who won the election of 1932?
How was Roosevelt as a leader?
he was a great president, he knows what he doesn't know, on day 2 he starts helping.
What were Three goals of the New Deal?
1) relief, he promised to relieve their suffering 2) recovery, he promised economic growth, 3) reform, he promised to eliminate problems that caused the Great Depression
What happened during The first hundred days?
Bank holiday, he closed all nations banks for 3 days, recovery and reform;
Fireside chat - Roosevelt took advantage of his ability to to us the radio to deliver his speeches. He wants people to think he is doing what he says he is doing and he is;
FDIC, Federal Deposits Insurance Cooperation, ensures the deposits in banks, recovery and reform;
Home Owners Loan Corporations, finance homes at a lower interest rate, Recovery and relief;
Civilian Conservation Corps, gave unemployed men work through a military style system building infrastructure, Reform and recovery;
Tennessee Valley Authority, still around. Built hydroelectric dams along the Tennessee River and its tributaries, this created electricity (I LIVED RIGHT NEXT TO THE TVA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WHEN I WAS GROWING UP!! WE DROVE OVER THE DAM ALL OF THE TIME! INTERESTING, HUH?);
Agricultural Adjustment Act, designed to help farmers. Gave them price supports, Reform and recovery;
National Recovery Act, said the government can tell business what to make how to make it and how many to make and what price they can have. Recovery;
Federal Securities Act, gave the government the power to regulate the stock markets. Reform .
What was the problem with The Nation Recovery Act?
Republicans claim that it's unconstitutional
What was The Court Packing Plan?
allow the president to appoint a new Supreme Court Justice for every existing justice that was over 60.
What were Arguments over direction the country was going?
People felt that Roosevelt was on the verge of becoming a dictator
What was the Criticism from the right over the New Deal?
Right, conservatives, they don't like the new deal. They think he's trying too much
What was The American Liberty League?
the people on the right side made this party
How did the Wealthy react to Roosevelt?
these people don't like the New Deal because it's taxing them more.
Who was Father Charles Coughlin?
he was crazy, a priest who felt like the New Deal should be doing more, he wanted Roosevelt to take over the nation's banks because he thought they caused the Great Depression .He was convinced that Jewish people controlled the banks and that they destroyed the banks.
Who was Francis Townsend?
a doctor, he thought some ideas were better than the New Deal, Roosevelt thinks he's a threat in the election, he wanted to give people over 60 $200 a month stating that they are required to spend the money by that month. Roosevelt stole this idea, which is now Social Security.
Who was Huey Long?
the real threat to Roosevelt, from Louisiana, people assume that Louisiana politics are corrupt. He saw the depression as an opportunity for himself, the plan was called Share Our Wealth, which is when the government guarantees you a house, a car, and a radio. This meant that the government would take your fortune. He was shot and killed
What was the Works Progress Administration?
if the government couldn't find you a job, they would give you a job working for the government.
What was the National Youth Administration?
education had been interrupted by the Great Depression so they held school at night so that the new generation wouldn't be under educated
What is the Public Works Administration?
They built really big stuff, like dams , tunnels and many more. This created jobs which was a relief
What was the Rural Electrification Admin?
this gave people who lived far away free electricity
What was the Social Security Act?
a government enforced plan that requires you to pay in during your working life and then when you retire you have money.
What was the Revenue Act?
taxed wealthy people
What was The New Deal Coalition?
these are voters for the Democratic party, middle class people in cities, farmers, unionized factory workers, educated people, white southerners, northern African Americans.
What was Roosevelt's position on and civil rights?
he was very bendy with African Americans. Tried to win support of northern urban African Americans, but he allowed racism to continue. He was afraid of losing their vote
Who was Marian Anderson?
a singer that sang on the steps of the White House in an effort to show progress towards civil rights.
Who was Eleanor Roosevelt?
The first lady. She lived a separate form Roosevelt. She believed in racial equality.
What was the Dust bowl?
natural disaster that affected the central plains.
What conditions lead to natural disaster?
farmers cut down all their trees and bushes so they had more land to farm on, farmers overworked the land , drought
How did the Dust Bowl Impact farmers
they could not farm due to the dust bowl
Why did people Migrate west?
people from Oklahoma wanted to move to California to get away from the Dust Bowl.
What were Labor unions like at this time?
the exact opposite of labor unions in the 1920
What was The National Labor Relations Act?
Passed by Congress. This law guaranteed unions the right to collective bargaining.
What was The Congress of Industrial Organizations?
new unions, this was a nationwide labor union for unskilled workers.
What was the Flint Sit Down Strike?
the most important strike, in this strike they sat down at their workstation but didn't do any work. They would strike in shifts. GM gave in which lead to the UAN.
What happened with the strikes at Ford plants?
Ford paid his workers better, but during the depression his workers started going on strike to get more money
What were some reasons for union success?
the government is on the side of labor unions, workers saw the reason for the unions, the economy was bad so unions seemed more necessary.
What were conditions like for Women?
they were openly discriminated against, they were the first laid off and they were never hired, were paid way less than men, only given menial labor.
How were African Americans treated?
Suffered most, Lynching increased, violence increased during the great depression.
How did the American Communist Party treat African Americans?
they tried to include African Americans, they gave them good treatment they could even hold a bigger power in the party.
How were the Hispanic Americans treated?
Discrimination based on the color of their skin, they start to go back to Mexico during the Great Depression because of how bad the treatment was in America.
Who were Migrant workers?
Hispanic Americans, it was a farming job. They would travel from one job to the next.
What Impact did the Depression have on society?
people had to learn to make do with what they had, making things last, fixing your own things, created a sense of community, they rediscovered skills because they had to know how to do many things, Marriage and birth rates declined during, Population growth slows people would wait a long time to get married. Birth Rate, immigration, life expectancy, people gave more to charity during the great depression.
What happened to American culture during the depression?
Radio provided Cheap entertainment, Movies provided Hours of entertainment for a low price, Musicals, Gangster movies, and comedies became popular
What happened with literature in the early 30s?
leftist authors were socialist and communist. Did not support the USA
What happened with literature in the Late 30s?
nationalist, promoting the USA
What type of Music was popular at this time?
big band, music that could distract people from the depression
What was happening with Art at this time?
American style themes and subjects, modern
What is Streamlining?
new form of design that was created in the 1930, this is making things more aerodynamic.
What is isolationism?
a policy of remaining apart from the affairs or interests of other groups, especially the political affairs of other countries.
What is the Good Neighbor Policy?
we won't send our armies into other countries
How did the US use economic pressure rather than military?
we rewarded South American countries when we thought they did something good.
Who was Benito Mussolini?
took over Italy in the 30s
What caused the collapse of the Italian monarchy?
the monarchy collapsed from the Great Depression
Struggle for control
they are beating eachother up and killing each other.
Who invented Facism?
What is Extreme nationalism?
fascism, people are expected to sacrifice for the success of the nation.
Who were the Black shirts?
Mussolini is going to use them for his popularity.
What happened when Mussolini took over?
he controlled most of Italy except for Rome, so the government gavehim power so the black shirts wouldn't attack Rome. They gave him a military.
Who had power in Japan?
they had an emperor
What types of economic struggles did Japan and Italy have?
they fall apart. Japan lacked many natural resources that are needed for industry, so they had to import a lot of goods
What was the Military party?
suggested that they should just go take what they wanted and kill people while doing it, they thought that they shouldn't be suffering
How was Discipline important in Japan?
they heavily favor people who follow the rules, they didn't value rebels. The government told the army to do evil things and they did them because they were listening to the rules. They had Absolute loyalty, loyal to the emperor of japan.
What happened with Manchuria and China?
Japan invades china
Who was Adolf Hitler?
born in Austria, not actually German. He had an abusive father so he was close to his mother, his mom died. He was excited about WWI. He fought in the Austrian Army then transferred to the German Army. He was a good soldier. He grew up in a place that was very racist
How did the Economic collapse impact events?
this began the conflict. They began to print money and use the money that had no value.
What was the Beer Hall Putsch?
Hitler was going to overthrow the Bavarian government. The plan was bad because everyone knew about it including the police. Hitler was arrested and put in jail for 4 years.
How did the Nazi Party begin?
when Hitler gets out of prison he creates this party, he was a strong Nationalist, he wanted to do the best thing for Germany. He was very loyal, If you criticized Hitler you criticized Germany.
Who were the Brown shirts?
Hitler's own private army, young unemployed men with no future. They were very pristine and in order, they have to be clean.
Why did Hitler become so powerful?
he knows how to deliver a speech, he make the people feel good, he told the people it's not their fault that things are bad, he blamed the Treaty of Versailles, then starts blaming other smaller groups, he tells people to vote for him and he will fix the Treaty of Versailles, which means he is going to break the law of the treaty.
How did Hitler gain the loyalty of the army?
the actual German army is who Hitler had to worry about. He killed off his brown shirt leaders which gained the German Army's loyalty
How did the Reichstag fire lead to martial law?
there was a fire and Hitler blamed all the minorities so he declares a martial law, he gains all power. He gained absolute power.
How did America react to fascist dictators?
most laughed at Hitler and Mussolini. Some Americans praised Hitler because he grew his army in Germany which meant the economy was growing there and they praised him for it because their economy wasn't good
How did Franklin Roosevelt feel about Hitler?
he was worried that they would involve us in their war
What happened with The Saint Louis?
900 refugees tried to come to the US on a ship. They were denied so they kept trying but they were denied everywhere so they went back to Europe
What are Neutrality acts?
the US didn't want to fight, so the US made it illegal to sell good to the countries that were fighting because that is what brought us into the first world war.
Where did World War II begin?
Why was Rhineland important?
it was part of the Treaty of Versailles, occupied by French and Great Britain. Hitler takes this land, Britain and France did not want to fight over a piece of land because they thought it wasn't worth it.
What is the Anschluss ?
the unification of Austria and Germany. This is against the Treaty of Versailles.
What is The Sudetenland?
Czechoslovakia, Hitler targeted this land that touches Germany. It becomes part of The German Nazi empire
What is the Nazi Soviet Pact?
Poland borders the Soviet Union, Hitler is afraid of Stalin who controls the Soviet Union, Hitler wants to make a deal. 1 they won't attack one another 2. they will share Poland with one another.
Why was France invaded?
France and Great Britain said that if Hitler invades they will attack, but Hitler isn't scared of them. France surrenders
What started the Battle of Britain?
Great Britain is an island so Germany wanted to invade them to control the air space.
What was the Peacetime Draft?
Roosevelt passed this draft that would keep the US out of war
What was the Destroyer Deal?
we gave Great Britain about 90 used ships and they gave us navy bases. This does not violate the neutrality act because they traded not sold.
What was the Lend Lease Act?
another loophole, this was where we would lend Great Britain weapons and many things.
What is Cash and carry?
this was where Great Britain had to pay cash to rent American things and they would have to bring everything back themselves
What was significant about the Election of 1940?
Roosevelt was going to run for a third term, he is worried he will lose the election. he was reelected
What was the convoy/half way?
the US Navy could export ships to Great Britain, the US would protect their cargo. Britain would come to Iceland (meet us half way) to get the materials.
What was the Occupation of Greenland and Iceland?
Roosevelt used Iceland as a warehouse for goods that Britain leased. They would come and pick up, meet halfway.
What was The Atlantic Charter?
an agreement between the US and Great Britain, it was the combined plan for WWII by Great Britain and the US. Defeat Germany first
What happened at the Invasion of Burma and Indonesia?
Japan attacked these colonies, they are gaining
What was the US response to the invasion of Burma and Indonesia?
the US sent a letter telling the Japanese to stop. Japan didn't take the US seriously
What happened when the Japanese over ran Indochina?
the US actually did something here, we placed an embargo. Japanese wanted to fight the US, the other plan was to make nice with the US and then attack the us.
What happened at Pearl Harbor?
Japanese attack the US Navy base in Hawaii. The Battleship Arizona was sunk, destroyed hundreds of airplanes and killed about 1400 Americans. December 8, the US declared war on Japan
How did the US attitude about war change?
in one day they went from not wanting war to wanting war after Pearl Harbor, millions of men volunteered
What as the Office of War Mobilization?
Roosevelt created this which ran the US, this was run by Jimmy Burns
What did the War Production Board do?
decided what to make how to make it and how many to make
What was the War Manpower Commission?
classified every man in the US on whether they can be drafted or not
How did Roosevelt reorganize the military?
made the Marine Corps
What were the Production records?
2.6million machine guns
How did the US finance the war?
What type of New weapons were invented?
flamethrowers, Ultimately the atomic bomb
What was the Manhattan Project?
the plan to develop the atomic bomb
How did we use Propaganda and information?
they encouraged people to do what the government wanted
How did the war impact society?
Mobility, this meant that people were living further away from each other again. Women, the government was actually encouraging women to go get jobs. African Americans, they were still being discriminated against, but this soon started to change; they started to be able to get jobs
How did military service change with the attitude shift towards minorities?
still served with African American men. Native Americans; they served in higher numbers than other races , they were given many great opportunities
How were Japanese Americans treated during WWII?
they were treated very badly because they were Japanese. Roosevelt imprisoned them throughout the war
What was Relocation and internment?
Roosevelt forced Japanese Americans to relocate. They lost everything. When the war was over and they got back to their "home" everything was gone
What happened with families during WWII?
American family's divorce rate went up, the demand for divorce went up
How were Young people impacted during WWII?
they went crazy again, drugs alcohol and teen pregnancy
What was Operation Torch?
the Allied invasion of French North Africa in November 1942. The first time the British and Americans had jointly worked on an invasion plan together.
What was Kasserine Pass?
first real American defeat in WWII, we realized that our generals were not good
What was the Victory in Tunisia?
America won this battle
How was the war in the pacific different from the war in Europe?
way more dirty
Why was Australia important during WWII?
bad guys wanted to gain control
What was the Guadalcanal?
we fight them to gain control over an airforce base, America won this battle which protected Australia.
What happened in New Guinea?
Japanese fighting the Americans.
What happened at The Battle of the Coral Sea
a battle for this body of water it was fought by aircraft carriers. This battle ended as a tie
What happened at the Battle of the Midway?
the Japanese target was Midway. Most important battle between Japanese and American Navy aircraft carriers. America won
What happened in Sicily?
we invaded and captured this place in Italy, practiced big boat little boat little boat
How did the Collapse of the Italian government happen?
Italy turned to the American's side
Who had Naval superiority?
What was Island hopping?
a strategy where the US hopped from one island to another until we get to Japan
What was Split command?
The Navy wants to hop from island to island, the army wanted to fight until they got to New Guinea to the Philippines. The Marines followed the island hopping strategy
What is Monte Casino?
US blew up this place
What happened at Anzio?
the US set up camp and waited for the Germans to attack but they never did,
What happened with theLiberation of Rome?
we won against the Germans
What is D-Day?
June 6th German and Allied forces landed on 5 beaches; Normandy, Utah, Omaha, Gold, and Juno Sword. The US secures the beaches
What are The Hedgerows?
in France, the is a region of Normandy. We spend 6 weeks to get through these hedges.
What happened at the Liberation of Paris?
the Americans liberate Paris
What was the Market Garden?
this was a mission for the Americans to capture bridges so they can cross a river. This was a failure
What are The Ardennes?
since the Market Garden failed, we had to use this. the US had to attack the Germans in the Ardennes.
What was the Battle of the Bulge?
the Germans attacked the Americans in the winter, the Germans thought that they could outsmart the American soldiers and they almost do but they don't. Germany failed
How were the Marines significant in Guam?
The Marines landed on the island of Guam, part of the American territory. They freed many Prisoners of War.
What happened at Saipan?
first battle. Americans encountered Japanese civilians. The civilians fought with the military.
What happened in New Guinea?
in the beginning of 1944 the army is still in New Guinea, later that year they finally captured New Guinea
What was the last year of the war?
Why was Crossing the Rhine important?
we needed bridges to cross this river but Germans were blowing them up, there was one bridge that they didn't get to so we sent as many people across the bridges.
What happened in Okinawa?
we land may soldiers here, the Army and Marines are back together, many ships were sunk by the Japanese
What was the Shattering of the Jewel?
this was saying that Japan was as perfect as a jewel and they could not let anyone affect that.
an honorable death in combat.
men or civilians who having no hope of relief, either condemn themselves to a battle of annihilation with the enemy or are ordered to fight to the death. The end result is the almost total elimination of every Japanese since surrender is not an option.
What led to the Decision to drop the bomb?
Truman decided to drop the bomb because Japan was going to be destroyed either way
Why was Hiroshima significant?
first bomb dropped on August 6 in this city, this bomb exploded in the air and this made the explosion even bigger because the ground didn't absorb some of the explosion.
What happened at Nagasaki?
the second atomic bomb was dropped 2 weeks later. This bomb killed fewer people because of where the bomb landed. Japan asked for a cease fire for the rest of August
When did Japan surrender?
September 1st 1945 they surrender due to the dropping of the bombs
What was Kristallnacht?
the night of the broken glass, Nazi and Germans were sent to go torment the Jewish in their town by doing awful violent things to them
What were the Nuremberg Laws?
series of laws that are passed by the German government that deprived Jewish rights for the German government
What led to Jewish Immigration?
The Jewish people try to immigrate away from Germans and Nazis, Hitler outlawed immigration for the Jewish people
What happened in Concentration camps?
this was why Hitler outlawed immigration so the Jewish people would be forced to relocate there. These weren't made to kill anybody.
What were the Death camps?
Hitler made these to have the Jewish people killed, they made these because trying to kill Jewish people town by town was too expensive. These were factories to kill people
How did they divide the Jewish people?
they divided men from women and they kept the children with the mother
How did Industrialization aid the Death Camps?
gas chambers, the oven to cremate the bodies
How did the Allies intervene?
America didn't intervene right away because they didn't want to bomb the camps in fear of killing the very people we were trying to save
What was the Aftermath of the Holocaust?
over 6 million Jewish people died, 9 million people were killed in all.
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