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42 terms

CP Bio Chapter 10

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adenine
(A) A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA
AIDS
The name of the late stages of HIV infection; defined by a specified reduction of T cells and the appearance of characteristic secondary infections
anticodon
A specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule
bacteriophage
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage.
codon
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code
cytosine
(C) A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA
DNA ligase
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain
DNA polymerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain
double helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
exon
A coding region of a eukaryotic gene.
guanine
(G) A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA
HIV
(human immunodeficiency virus)The infectious agent that causes AIDS
intron
A noncoding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene
lysogenic cycle
A phage replication cycle in which the viral genome becomes incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage and does not kill the host
lytic cycle
A type of viral replication cycle resulting in the release of new phages by death or lysis of the host cell
messenger RNA
(mRNA)A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein
molecular biology
The study of the molecular basis of genes and gene expression
mutagen
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation
mutagenesis
The creation of mutations
mutation
A rare change in the DNA of a gene ultimately creating genetic diversity
nucleotide
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
phage
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a bacteriophage
polynucleotide
A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA
promoter
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA
prophage
A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome
reading frame
The way a cell's mRNA-translating machinery groups the mRNA nucleotides into codons
retrovirus
An RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA and then inserting the DNA into a cellular chromosome; an important class of cancer-causing viruses
reverse transcriptase
An enzyme encoded by some RNA viruses that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis
ribosomal RNA
(rRNA)The most abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins, forms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons
RNA polymerase
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription
RNA splicing
The removal of noncoding portions (introns) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis
start codon
On mRNA, the specific three-nucleotide sequence (AUG) to which an initiator tRNA molecule binds, starting translation of genetic information
stop codon
In mRNA, one of three triplets (UAG, UAA, UGA) that signal gene translation to stop
sugar-phosphate backbone
The alternating chain of sugar and phosphate to which the DNA and RNA nitrogenous bases are attached
terminator
A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene
thymine
(T) A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA
transcription
The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template
transfer RNA
(tRNA)An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA
translation
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids
translocation
An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or from mutagens; specifically, attachment of a chromosomal fragment to a nonhomologous chromosome.
triplet code
A set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains
uracil
(U) A single-ring nitrogenous base found in RNA