Bureaucracy and Budget Test - AP Gov
Terms in this set (47)
system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
German sociologist, "father of bureaucracy"
Independent regulatory commission
A government agency or commission with regulatory power whose independence is protected by Congress.
idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
the practice of winning politicians rewarding their followers with government jobs
Pendleton Act (1883)
Did away with the "spoils system" and made the hiring of federal employees merit based.
Civil service system
the practice of hiring government workers on the basis of open, competitive examinations and merit
Those federal agencies that qualify as the major administrative organizations of the executive branch. (Department of Defense, Treasury, State ext...)
a business that the federal government runs. Allowed to make money. Amtrak, US Postal Service
Independent regulatory commissioner
the person in charge of an independent regulatory commission. Generally decided when the commission is created.
Senior executive service
a flexible mobile corps of senior career executives who work closely with presidential appointees to manage government. Easier to hire and fire than normal federal employees.
Federal Employees Political Activities Act (1993)
Replaced Hatch Act; Allowed federal employees to run for nonpartisan office and donate to a political campaign
a close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group
working group created to facilitate coordination of across different governmental agencies.
a quasi-legislative administrative process by which government agencies produce regulations. What agencies must do to implement laws.
spending on certain programs that is mandated, or required, by existing law
federal spending on programs that are controlled through the regular budget process
Net interest on debt
the amount the government has to pay off every year in interest because of the debt it accumulates
Government benefits that certain qualified individuals are entitled to by law, regardless of need.
The period from Oct. 1 to Sept. 30 for which government appropriations are made and federal books are kept.
Congressional Budget control and Impoundment Act (1974)
act to reform budgertary process and tried to decrease dependence on the president's budget.
Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB)
handles appeals of career civil servants who have been fired or who face other disciplinary action
the bureaucratic function of placing standards or restrictions on the actions of private individuals or companies in order to protect the general welfare of the public.
a quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes
a rule issued by the president that has the force of law
Congress's exercise of its authority to monitor the activities of agencies and administrators.
General Accounting Office (GAO)
performs routine financial audits of money spent by the executive departments and investigates agencies
Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
An agency of Congress that analyzes presidential budget recommendations and estimates the cost of proposed legislation.
Red Tape, Conflict, Duplication, imperialism, and waste
the system of employing and promoting civil servants on the basis of ability
Independent executive agency
A federal agency that is not part of a cabinet department but reports directly to the president.
Appointive policy-making positions
3,000 people appointed by President (heads, secretaries, undersecretaries of Cabinets, etc.)
Appointments to jobs that are described as having a "confidential or policy-determining character" below the level of cabinet or subcabinet posts (including executive assistants, special aides, and confidential secretaries)
Hatch Act (1939)
A federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in politics.
The process of putting a law into practice through bureaucratic rules or spending.
A policy-making group of loosely connected participants who want to affect a ceratin policy area.
Administrative discretion / discretionary authority
the ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional intentions
National Performance Review (NPR)
A 1993 effort, led by Vice President Al Gore, to make the bureaucracy work better and cost less.
House and Senate Budget Committees
One committee in each house of Congress that supervises a comprehensive budged review process
Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid
example of mandatory spending
House Ways and Means Committee
The House of Representatives committee that, along with the Senate Finance Committee, writes the tax codes, subject to the approval of Congress as a whole.
House Appropriations Committee
a committee of the United States House of Representatives in charge of setting the specific expenditures of money by the government of the U.S.
when the government spends more money than it brings in for a given year.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
the office that prepares the president's annual budget proposal. It takes "requests" from all the executive departments and creates the executive budget.
the cycle in which a person alternately works for the public sector and private sector, thus blurring the individual's sense of loyalty.
when the government brings in more money than it spends for a given year