a policy in which strong nations seek to dominate other countries, politically, socially, and economically.
the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation--that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history--rather than to a king of empire.
named for their location at the heart of Europe, consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and later Bulgaria and the Ottoman Turks
Germany's plan to attack and defeat France in the west and then rushing east to fight Russia.
Warfare in which soldiers fought each other from trenches and armies traded huge losses of human life for pitifully small land gains.
unrestricted submarine warfare
German policy of using subarmines to sink ships without warning in the waters around Britain.
system in which people can only buy small amounts of items that are also needed for the war effort.
a series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after WWI
idea that you should allow people to decide for themselves under what government they wished to live
Treaty of Versailles
treaty signed between Germany and the Allied powers--it created the League of Nations and punished Germany who was blamed with war guilt. Germany lost substantial territory, had restrictions placed on its military operations and was required to pay reparations to the Allies.
The three forces at work in Europe that helped set the stage for war
Imperialism, Nationalism which intensified rivalry among nations, and Militarism which increased their fighting power.
The characteristics of trench warfare
fighting from trenches with a no man's land in between them, trading huge losses for little territorial gain
Factors that contributed to Russia's war difficulties
lack of industrialization, shortages of food and supplies, and the German blockade of ports.
Factors that helped prompt the United States to join the war for the Allies
Germany's unresticted submarine warfare, Zimmerman note, U.S. ties with Britain and the Allies
Role of women in WWI
They helped run factories, farms, and towns, and kept troops supplied with food, clothing and weapons.
Significance of the Second Battle of the Marne
The Allies forced the Germans to retreat from France.
Why the United States rejected the Treaty of Versailles
Americans objected to the settlement and to the League of Nations; they believed that their best hope for peace was to stay out of European affairs.
"The powder keg of Europe"
The Balkans, it was home to many ethnic groups and had a history of ethnic clashes and nationalistic uprisings.
Significance of the First Battle of the Marne
Germany's defeat there forced them to abandon the Schlieffen Plan and fight a two-front war.