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Psychology Unit 4: Development

Infant, Child, Adolescence, Piaget, Kohlberg, Freud, Erikson, Developmental Psych
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Describe Piaget's Sensorimotor stage
Piaget's Stage 1 - Birth to 2 years of age - Infants experience the world through senses and actions. At the beginning of this stage, infants do not have object permanence
Describe Piaget's PreOperational stage
Piaget's Stage 2 - Stage of language development. Child is egocentric and lack the ability to understand conservation, reversibility, and lacks logical reasoning.
Object Permanence
The awareness that things continue to exist even when you cannot see or hear them. (Children in the beginning of the sensorimotor stage lack this.
Describe Piaget's Concrete Operational stage
Piaget's 3rd Stage - Ages 7 - 11 - Children can think logically about concrete events and can perform arithmetical operations. Struggle with abstract reasoning.
Describe Piaget's Formal Operational stage
Piaget's 4th Stage - Piaget states that in this stage - adolescents understand abstract reasoning (he also states that not everyone will reach this stage.
What is the Nature v. Nurture Debate?
Ongoing dispute over the relative contributions of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment)
What 5 aspects of individual development do Developmental Psychologists study?
Intellectual, Social, Physical, Emotional, Moral
What is the newborn grasping reflex?
infants can grasp onto a finger so strongly they could be lifted into the air
What is the newborn rooting reflex?
touched on the mouth, the head will turn towards the source of the touch
What is the newborn moro reflex?
when an infant is startled, the arms and legs will splay outwards
What is the newborn swimming reflex?
babies will naturally hold their breath and paddle when dropped in water, up until about 6 months
Describe the Visual Cliff experiment:
Young babies did not have fear
6 months + had increased heart rate
Mother's faces impacted
Which Psychologist is associated with Cognitive Development?
Jean Piaget
What is the principle of Conservation?
a given quantity doesn't change when its appearance changes
Which Psychologist is associated with Psychosexual Development?
Sigmund Freud
What is the 1st stage of Psychosexual Development? (birth-18 months)
Oral: Pleasure is focused on the mouth and sucking at mothers breast
What is the 2nd stage of Psychosexual Development? (1.5 - 3 years)
Anal: Pleasure is focused on the functions of elimination of waste
What is the 3rd stage of Psychosexual Development? (3-6 years)
Phallic: Pleasure is focused on the genitals; Oedipus Complex Develops-->desire to have relations with opposite sex parent
What is the 4th stage of Psychosexual Development? (6-puberty)
Latency: Sexual thoughts are repressed; child focuses on developing social and intellectual skills
What is the 5th stage of Psychosexual Development? (adolescence-adulthood)
Genital: Sexual desire is renewed; individual seeks relationships with others
What is authoritarian style parenting?
restrictive; low self-esteem in child
What is authoritative style parenting?
decisions are made jointly with parent's limits; non-delinquent behavior in child
What is permissive-indulgent style parenting?
parents don't condemn negative behavior; impulsive behavior in child
What is permissive-neglectful style parenting?
parents are disinterested in child; delinquent behavior in child
What is erractic style parenting?
inconsistent control from parents; disobedient behavior in child
Which Psychologist is associated with Moral Development?
Kohlberg
Which Psychologist is associated with Psychosocial Development?
Erickson
What are rites of passage?
ceremonies or rituals in which an individual is admitted to new status or accepted into a new position
What are some examples of rites of passage?
Puberty
16th birthday
Driving a car
18th birthday
Graduation
21st birthday
Describe G. Stanley Hall's Storm and Stress Theory on Adolescence:
Like animals trapped in a cage, seeing freedom but not knowing when it will come
Describe Margaret Mead's Cultural Influence Theory on Adolescence:
Stress is a product of industrialization; Some cultures experience carefree adolescence
Adolescents are in Piaget's Piaget's formal operational thinking stage, which means they can:
consider hypothetical questions, metaphors, analogies and rationalize
What is Rationalization?
process by which an individual seeks to explain an unpleasant emotion or behavior in a way that will preserve his/her esteem
Describe Erik Erikson's Identity Crisis Theory of Adolescence:
a period of inner conflict during which one worries intensely about who they are
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