WHIS Unit 10 World War I
Terms in this set (31)
1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile
Sinking of the Lusitania
Cruise ship that was sunk by German submarines and helped bring the US closer to involvement in WWI
General of the American Expeditionary Force in WWI
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.
-Germany's payments for cost of war
-was agreed upon in the Treaty of Versailles (1919)
-terribly damaged German economy
-France + Britain relied on these payments to pay the US back
-When the US stock market crashed, Germany suffered even more, as well as other nations; US also facing the effects of the crash demanded its money back with a greater emphasis
Reasons for World War I
Militarism, Alliances, Nationalism, Imperialism, Assassination
Leader Russia's Bolshevik movement; Led the Communist revolution in October 1917 which helped take Russia out of the war
War of Attrition
a war based on wearing down the other side with constant attacks and heavy losses
Fighting with trenches, gas, mines, and barbed wire.
Horrible living conditions, slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Kaiser of Germany during WWI
Archduke of Austria-Hungary assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. A major catalyst for WWI.
Western Front of WWI
French vs. Germans and slow Trench Warfare
The overthrow of Russia's Provisional Government in the fall of 1917 by Lenin and his Bolshevik forces, made possible by the government's continuing defeat in the war, its failure to bring political reform, and a further decline in the conditions of everyday life.
Central Powers (Triple Alliance)
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Dynasty that favored the nobles, reduced military obligations, expanded the Russian empire further east, and fought several unsuccessful wars, yet they lasted from 1613 to 1917;
was overthrown and executed because the people blamed them for getting Russia involved in WWI
T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)
British officer who scored major victories in the middle east to weaken the Turks
Large gas filled balloons used by Germany to drop bombs
A conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort
At suggestion of a young Winston Churchill - first lord of the Admiralty - this campaign was launched in 1915 to open the Dardanelle Straits up to allied powers and attack Constantinope(Turks on Central Powers' side). Thus it was hoped to be able to support and supply the Russian through the Black Sea. Errors in planning led to failure of the this campaign and allied forces withdrew in 1916. ALSO KNOWN AS THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN. Many Australian and New Zealand troops fought in this campaign.
An agreement to stop fighting
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded severe reparations from the Germans
Nicholas II of Russia
Czar of Russia during WWI, he stepped down due to unrest, was arrested by the Communists, and later executed along with his family
Reds and whites
Red: Bolshevik Army
White: Anti Bolshevik (Inc Mensheviks, Socialist Rev, bourgeois and aristocratic liberals and anti-Leninist socialists.)
Went to Civil War with each other.
League of Nations
An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace.
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.
Germany's military plan at the outbreak of World War I, according to which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia.
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
American Expeditionary Force
About 2 million Americans went to France as members of this under General John J. Pershing. Included the regular army, the National Guard, and the new larger force of volunteers and draftees and they served as individuals
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany's Policy of sinking ships with their U-boats, enemy or neutral, that carry war material
1. Serbian nationalist assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, Bosnia
2. Black Hand was a Bosnian nationalist group that were responsible for the assassination of Ferdinand
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force