27 terms

2014 English SOL Terms

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Alliteration
repeated consonant sound at the beginning of words or within words; used to establish mood and rhythm in a story; true alliteration has three words beginning with the same sound (two words beginning with the same sound would be called alliterative) Examples: bucking bronco; miserable morning; Bed, Bath, and Beyond
Analogy
comparing one thing to another very different thing in order to explain it better Examples: a school is like a garden, where children are lovingly raised and cared for; the rabbit shot from its hole like a rocket; the confetti fell like snow in a blizzard as the parade passed through the city streets (these three analogies are all written as similes)
Atmosphere
mood or feeling developed through descriptions of the setting and senses (how things feel, taste, smell, sound, look) Example: Camping in those woods, time went slow. The thick forest air just sat on you, hot and wet like a wool blanket, while mosquitoes droned in your ears and stung you on the back where you could never quite reach to smack them.
Character
a person or player (it can also be an animal, an imaginary creature) in a story; character can also be used as a word meaning "personal traits," as in "Write a paragraph about the character of the Big Bad Wolf."
Climax
the most exciting moment of the story, where the main character faces his/her ultimate challenge Example: In Cinderella, the clock begins striking twelve, and Cinderella must rush home before the handsome prince finds out her secret. That is the climax. The following day, when the prince finds her again and fits the glass slipper on her foot, is the outcome, or solution, of the story.
Conflict
the problem, or challenge, that the main character faces Example: The main character may be challenged by another character (two kids running in a race), by nature (a boy struggling to survive in the wilderness), or by him/herself (a girl who must get over her fear of speaking in front of an audience)
Dialogue
spoken lines between characters, set with quotation marks; each new speaker's lines appear in a new paragraph; when one person speaks for an extended time (to himself or the audience) it is called a monologue Example: "Where are you going?" Nicole asked. "To the library," replied Jeremy.
Event
an action in a story that moves the story forward; usually something happens to the main character, or the main character takes action against someone or something else Example: In the book Ruby the Copycat, Ruby sees her friend wear a certain dress, so Ruby comes to school in a similar dress. Her friend tells a story about a wedding, so Ruby tells a very similar story. Each time Ruby sees her friend do something and copies it, that is an event in the story. The most important event is called the Climax, and the final event is called the Outcome, or Solution.
Flashback
interruption of the present action to insert an episode that took place earlier; this gives the reader needed information to understand a current event, or a character's motivation Example: I could tell that Jimmy wasn't going to back down. He stood up to bullies before, like back in first grade when Roger Neary used to eat everybody's snack. One day Jimmy had caught Roger in his snack bag, and...
Foreshadowing
clues used to alert the reader about events that will occur later; used to build suspense Example: I laughed as we snuck out the back door. The plan had worked out perfectly. Nothing could possibly go wrong now!
Hyperbole
obvious exaggeration which is not meant to be taken literally Example: I'm so hungry I could eat a horse!
Imagery
mental pictures which are created by descriptions of the senses, so that we can see and feel what the character is experiencing Example: Even the dark, shiny leaves which usually clung to the chimney of my grandmother's house hung dry and brittle on that hot summer day.
Inference
conclusions which can be drawn by the reader based upon limited clues or facts presented by the author; the reader is encouraged to discover things for him/herself without being directed by the author Example: Mark's father was surprised the following week when, all of a sudden, Mark quit begging for a dog. He began spending much more of his time out at the old barn by the creek, and had even begun to ask for seconds and thirds at suppertime.
Irony
contrast between the expected outcome and the actual way things turn out (see Dramatic Irony) Example: In the book Holes, no one in the courtroom believes that Stanley Yelnats is innocent. Once he gets to Camp Green Lake he lies about committing the crime, but then no one there believes he is guilty! He just can't seem to win
Metaphor
a suggested comparison between two unlike things in order to point out a similarity; a metaphor DOES NOT use the word like, as as, or than. Example: Hot orange coals burned at the edge of the woods as the wolves watched and waited with hungry eagerness. (the wolves' eyes are compared to orange coals because of their brightness and color)
Onomatopoeia
words that imitate, or sound like, the actions they describe Examples: bang, slurp, ping, slam, hiss, squish
Personification
a description in which an object (or animal, or idea, or force of nature) takes on human characteristics or actions Examples: the tornado stooped to snatch the house; the sun hid its face behind the clouds; the rain tapped against the window with its wet, insistent fingers
Plot
what happens in a story, told in a sequenced, chronological order Example: Samantha received a new skateboard for her birthday. A week later, however, she lost it. She looked everywhere but couldn't find it. Then one day...
Point of View
the perspective from which a story is seen or told; there are three main forms: First Person: (I and me are used; the narrator is actually a part of the story) I woke up first, alarmed that I had slept too late and missed my chance. A look at my brother's bed told me he was still asleep, snuggled up under the covers. Third Person: (he and she are used; the narrator simply helps tell the story, and lets all character speak for themselves) Pete woke up first. A look at his brother's bed told him that Sam was still asleep, snuggled up under the covers. Omniscient: (he and she are used; BUT the narrator not only lets characters speak, but can also "get inside their heads" to read their thoughts) Pete woke up first, feeling somewhat alarmed that he might have overslept and missed his chance. He looked at his brother's bed and was glad to see that Sam was still asleep, snuggled up under the covers.
Pun
a humorous use of a word or phrase that has more than one meaning (or two similarly spelled words that sound alike) Examples: "If you really want to keep warm, try bear skin," said the trapper. "But won't I be really cold in my bare skin?" asked the boy. Why is it easy for an elephant to travel? He can carry his own trunk.
Repetition
the author purposely repeats words or phrases; the author is trying to create rhythm or suspense, or is trying to really emphasize a certain idea. Example: It was all gone. Burned to ashes. He had no clothing, no blankets, no bow, no hatchet, no map. It was all gone.
Setting
the time and place of a story; the time may simply be "present day" Example: Over a hundred years ago, Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin...
Simile
a comparison between two unlike things, using like, as as, or than in the comparison Example: the leaf spun to the ground like a descending helicopter; more nervous than a long-tailed cat in a room full of rocking chairs; he was as mad as a hornet
Symbol
any person, object, or action that has additional meaning beyond itself Example: As a boy sits in class on the first day of school, he stares out the window at a basketball sitting on the blacktop in the playground. As he gazes at it, the basketball reminds him of all the fun times he had over the summer. The basketball becomes a symbol of summer.
Theme
the meaning of a story, what it reveals about human nature; plot is what happens in the story, while theme is what it means Example: Plot: young soldier fights his first battle Theme: war is useless; fighting solves nothing
Tone
the author's attitude toward a subject, revealed by choice of words and details Example: The girl cast a lonely thin shadow on the gray brick wall, as her classmates tumbled merrily in the brightly flowered fields beyond the school. (the author feels sorry for the girl who isn't playing with the other children)
Trait
a word which describes a character's personality, or how she/he acts in the story; it must always be backed up with evidence (support or proof) from the story Example: Beatrice is very patient with her little sister, Ramona. Ramona is sometimes stubborn and doesn't do what she is told, but Beatrice never yells or complains. Instead, she finds clever ways to get Ramona to behave. (the word patient is the trait; the second and third sentences provide the evidence, or proof, from the story)