32 terms

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire from Start to Fall
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Geography of Rome
• Tiber River on one side and a double ring of seven hills on the other afforded a natural protection
• A land of hills and mountains
• Mountains: Apennine Range runs down the middle; Alps shields Italy to the North
• Hillsides covered in forests
• 75% of land was hilly
• Had extremely fertile volcanic soil
Romulus
• Founder of Rome
• As a baby was cast adrift the Tiber River
• Nursed by a she-wolf
Roman Forum
Civic Center of Rome
Role of Agriculture
• Essential economic activity in early Roman state
• Land was the basis of wealth
• Vast majority of early Romans were self-sufficient independent farmers owning small plots of land
• Heads of wealthy families were the Council of Elders
Government of Roman Republic
• Sovereign power resided in several assemblies- Senate, Consul and Tribunes
• Votes of Patricians counted more than the votes of the plebeians
Consul
Presided over meeting of the Senate and commanded the army on military campaigns
Roman Senate
• Real center of power
• 300 patricians who served for life
• Advisory council, first to the kings and later to the annually changing Republican officials
• Made policy and governed
• The repository of the wealth, influence, political and military experience in the state
Patron/client relationship
• Relationship that existed between: A man of wealth and influence (patron) → A man who sought out help and protection (client)
• Senator might be the patron of dozens or hundreds of men.
• Provides legal advice and representation, physical protection, and loans of money in tough times. In return, clients were to follow in battle and work on land.
Numina
Invisible, shapeless forces that filled the world, Refers to the gods.
pax deorum
"Peace of the Gods"- A covenant between the gods and the Roman State.
Role of Women
• Played no public role
• A woman never ceased to be a child in the eyes of the law
• Started out under the absolute authority of her paterfamilias.
• When she married, she came under the paterfamilias of her husband's family.
• Has to depend on a male guardian to advocate her interests.
• Gained personal protection and economic freedom.
Roman Religion
They worshipped the major gods and goddesses of Greece, although they gave them Latin names. They also worshipped Egyptian and Persian gods and goddesses.
Paterfamilias
The oldest living male and the head of the family and the most important male member . Had absolute authority.
Roman Conquests
The conquering of Italy. After this, she conquered all of the Mediterranean, the Middle East, the Alps area/Gaul, Spain and controlled the Mediterranean.
Treatment of Conquered People
The conquered people were treated like real romans. They had political and freedom rights. They could run for office and vote for the officials.
Legions
Roman units of 6000 soldiers
Effects of Expansion of the Republic
All of this power made the Republic end up breaking down and having one ruler/dictator rule the Roman Empire. She still kept parts of the Roman Republic government and merged it with a dictatorship.a
Gaius Marius
Achieved political prominence by accepting into the Roman legions poor, propertyless men to whom he promised farms after retirement of military service. These men became devoted to Marius and helped him get elected to six consulships.
Julius Caesar
Led the army in taking over Gaul. Granduncle of Octavian. Got killed in 44 BCE by the Roman senate not wanting Caesar to take full power and end the Roman Republic.
Latifundia
"Broad Estates" Land owned by farmers in war.
Octavian
Grandnephew and heir of Caesar. Eliminated all rivals and set up to refashion the Roman system of government.
Augustus
One of the many honorific titles that were given to Octavian. Augustus's ruthlessness, patience and intuitive grasp of psycology enable him to manipulate all the groups that made up Roman society. Died in 14CE after 45 years of rule. Added Egypt, parts of the Middle East and Central Europe to the empire.
Roman Principate
The period following the Roman Republic.
Equites
The class of Italian merchants and landowners second in wealth and social status only to the senatorial class. These people became the core of a new service that helped run the Roman Empire.
Urban Empire
Empire was administered through a network of towns and cities and brought the greatest benefits to the urban people. Urban cities were scattered throughout the empire. They provided adequate supplies of food and water; removing sewage were always problems.
Life of the Rich and Poor
Rich: Lived in elegant townhouse on the 7 hills. House was centered around an atrium, a rectangular courtyard. Had a large dining room, an interior garden, a kitchen and maybe a bath. Floor were decorated with pebble mosaics. Walls were frescoes. Rich owned many villas on the countryside.

Poor: Lived in crowded slums in the low-lying parts of the city. The tenements were damp, dark, smelly, and were subject to frequent fires.
Tenant Farmers
Replaced the independent farmers. Cultivated plots of land in return for a portion of their crops.
Pax Romana
"Roman Peace", Roman peace,' The stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cuture/ideas
Trade Items
Glass, metalwork, delicate pottery were exported throughout the empire. Roman armies were stationed on the frontiers were large markets of consumers. There was also trade in luxury items coming from China, India and Arabia along the Silk Road.
Romanization
The spread of the Latin language and the Roman way of life. This was confined to the western half of the empire.
Latin
The language of the Romans. Influences the languages of Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian and Romanian.
Citizenship
Men who completed a 26 year term of service in the military that backed up the roman legions were granted citizenship. In 212 CE, Caracalla granted citizenship to all free, adult, male inhabitants of the empire.
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