geology exam 2
Terms in this set (48)
The locations of major earthquakes...
are usually along edges of tectonic plate boundaries,
T/F The hypocenter of an earthquake is its vertical projection onto the Earth's surface
The main magnitude scales discussed in class are...
-Richter Scale (MI), moment magnitude scale (mw)
-NOT MERCALLI INTENSITY SCALE
Please rank the following earthquakes in terms of magnitude—Wells Nevada 2008, Chile 1960, San Francisco1906, Haiti 2010, Sumatra 2004, smallest to largest.
-Wells Nevada (M=6), Haiti Earthquake (M=7), San francisco (M=7.9), Sumatra Earthquake (M=9.1), Chile Earthquake (M=9.5)
T/F Earthquake intensity is always greatest near the epicenter.
***stronger amplitudes possible at longer distances from the epicenter
The largest magnitude earthquakes happen in...
by the ocean in subduction zones
T/F The newest technologies in earthquake studies allow us to predict exactly when earthquakes will happen.
The normal faults at Lake Tahoe are characterized by 3-4 meters of movement in a single earthquake! Let's say your ski chalet is on the footwall of the normal fault and your dog house is on the hanging wall. After the earthquake, your dog is ...
- below the ski chalet
The earthquake recurrence interval of the West Tahoe fault is ~3000 years. It has been ~3500 years since the last major earthquake on the fault. This means...
-it is overdue
This particular earthquake is known for both its large size and associated high death toll.
Which types of secondary hazards are associated with earthquakes?
Permanent fault offset
In what environment can a tsunami wave be created?
-oceans and lakes
-anywhere there is water
Tsunami waves are caused by what kind of fault motion?
-vertical motion underwater
-STRIKE SLIP FAULTS DO NOT CAUSE TSUNAMIS
The rupture behavior of an earthquake is sometimes referred to as...
The fastest seismic waves are?
Which statement is TRUE about seismic waves?
-P waves travel faster and arrive sooner than S-waves
-Seismic waves relate only to earthquakes
-surface waves: love/rayleigh
-body waves: P/S
Which statement is FALSE about deformation?
-rocks under low confining pressure are more likely to deform ductilely than rocks under high conforming pressure, ductile is not reversible
TRUE: DUCTILE DEFORMATION OCCURS AT HIGH CONFORMITY- FLOWING AND FOLDING .CAN BE RECOVERY OF SHAPE
*THINK OF "TAFFY"- ductile deformation
Which of the following statements is FALSE? Mountains...
-are randomly distributed over earth's surface.
-continue to get higher as long as the rate of erosion equals the rate of uplift
-were built from cratonic platform
-can form in collisional environments
-occur in some sort of set area based on tectonics
-can be weathered
-rate of uplift can change
Identify the FALSE statement.
Mountains formed in collisional belts don't get infinitely high or exist forever because...
-they are eventually subjected in the plate tectonic cycle
-TRUE: THEY EXPERIENCE OROGENIC COLLAPSE, EROSION ATTACKS AS SOON AS THEY BEGIN TO RISE, WHEN THEY GET LARGE THEY SPREAD LATERALLY, THEIR OWN WEIGHT CAUSES THEM TO COLLAPSE
-occurs in shallow crust (low T and P)
-causes rocks to break by fracturing
-occurs when strength or reach are extended
-colder, lower pressure
The crust in the Basin and Range Province of Nevada, Utah, and Arizona is stretching; therefore, fault movement in this region must be...
What type of fault does the diagram show?
-Normal fault; dip-slip fault
What is the name of the tectonic province where Reno is located?
-walker lane belt
An area of slightly dipping sedimentary rock layers is intruded by an igneous dike. Apply the basic principles for determining relative ages and identify the FALSE statement.
-the dike is older than the sedimentary rock layers it cuts across
-is illustrated by scientists' seeing pillow lava from only underwater, then theorizing that pillow lava found high in the mountains today did nevertheless form underwater
-is the physical processes we observe today were the same in the past
Which of the following statements is FALSE? The principle of...
-inclusion says rock containing inclusions is older than the inclusions
-uniformitarianism: processes observed today are same in past
-Original horizontality: sediments deposited horizontally to form sedimentary rocks: folding must occur
-Superposition: each layer is younger than bed below
-cross-cutting: younger features cut across older features (faults,dikes, must be younger)
-Inclusion: rock containing inclusion must be younger than rock included
The most difficult unconformity to identify is...
The four columns in this diagram represent rock layers at four different sites. The zigzag lines represent unconformities. Determine the relative ages of the fossils, and then identify the FALSE statement. Then use the essay portion on the back of the scantron to list the organisms in order of age.
Trilobite(550 mya)-sharks(400 mya)-ferns(350 mya)-reptile (320-310 mya) -ammonite (140 mya)-mammal(110 mya)
*mya= million years ago
-False statement: the reptile fossils are the second- youngest fossils shown
Which of the following shows the 4 geologic time divisions listed from oldest to youngest? Remember to reference the geologic time scale located on the last page of the exam.
-Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
What conditions are important for fossil formation?
death in oxygen free environment
hard parts (bones, shells, teeth)
lack of diagenesis or metamorphism
The last ice age ended about...
-10,000-12,000 years ago
A radioactive isotope of the element potassium decays to produce argon. A half-life is the time that it takes for half of the radioactive isotopes in a sample to decay to stable isotopes. If we begin with 64 radioactive atoms of the parent potassium, after 4 half-lives one would observe...
-4 radioactive atoms of the parent potassium, 60 radioactive atoms of the daughter argon
Geologists estimate that the age of the Earth is 4.54 billion years old, based on...
-isotopic dating of meteorites thought to be from primitive solids of the early solar system
Choose the proper listing of names to fit the following three descriptions-- Age of Mammals, Age of Dinosaurs, and longest geologic time period.
-Cenozoic (mammals), Mesozoic (dinosaurs), precambrian (longest)
Largest species die off seen in the geologic record defined the...
-permian-triassic extinction event
-"the great dying"
Some causes for extinction are...
-global climate change (habitat change)
-tectonic activity (modifies distribution and size of habitats)-PANGAEA
-asteroid/comet impact event
-volcanic eruption (ash and gas changes climate, lava flows)
-new predators/competitors (humans!)
What was the driving factor for the Cambrian explosion?
-a steep rise in oxygen
-increase in evolutionary innovation (vision)
The U.S. consumes about how many barrels of oil per day, which represents what percentage of the global use?
-20 million barrels per day; 25% of world's oil supply
Why is nuclear energy an important player in the global energy game?
-enormous amounts of energy
-long half life
T/F The concentration in the atmosphere of CO2 is about 400 parts per thousand?
The Eastern US is a dominant producer of what energy resource?
What is one of the main tools for finding and developing oil wells?
-drills, "gushers", seismic imaging
Oil and natural gas (aka Fossil Fuels) are produced from...
What conditions are ideal for coal formation?
tropical deltaic wetlands
oxygen pore settings
buried beneath transgressive sea deposits
Identify the FALSE statement about alternative energy sources.
-biofuels are carbon free
TRUE: biofuels are not carbon free
Oil is most easily found is what type of structural trap?
Nevada is one of the world's dominant producers of...
The speaker in the Ted Talk posted on WebCampus discusses natural sources of radiation. Granite (prevalent in the Reno area) produces 50% of natural radiation in the form of...
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