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Bio23 Exam 2c Lecture comprehension
Terms in this set (10)
If a saltwater fish were placed in a freshwater aquarium, its cells would rapidly absorb water and rupture. Marine fish are adapted to have body fluids isotonic to seawater. They would be hypertonic to freshwater, so water would move by osmosis into the fish's cells. Conversely, if a freshwater fish were put in a saltwater aquarium, its cells would be hypotonic to the saltwater. They would lose water and shrivel. Either fish would soon die.
If someone bought a saltwater fish in a pet shop and put it in a freshwater aquarium at home, what would happen to the fish's cells? What would happen if someone put a freshwater fish in a saltwater aquarium? Explain.
In crush injuries of this sort, blood potassium level rises. Potassium is normally more concentrated in the intracellular fluid than in the extracellular fluids, and the injury breaks up cells and releases potassium into the extracellular fluids.
A farmer's hand and forearm are badly crushed in a hay baler. When examined at the hospital, his blood potassium level is found to be abnormal. Would you expect it to be higher or lower than normal? Explain.
Because of the low level of blood albumin, such children have abnormally low blood osmolarity. The bloodstream osmotically retains less fluid than normal, so the water content and volume of the blood drop.
Many children worldwide suffer from a severe deficiency of dietary protein. As a result, they have very low levels of blood albumin. How do you think this affects the water content and volume of their blood? Explain.
Mitochondria do not create energy, but only transfer it from one molecule to another. What they do make is the high-energy compound ATP, but the energy content of the ATP they produce is less than the energy content of the pyruvate molecules they used to do so.
It is often said that mitochondria make energy for a cell. Why is this statement false?
Without dynein arms, cilia and flagella cannot move. If flagella are immobile, then sperm cannot move, since the sperm tail is composed mainly of a flagellum. Lacking sperm motility, a man with Kartagener's syndrome is sterile. He also suffers severe respiratory congestion because the cilia of the respiratory tract are unable to move and propel mucus. Mucus continues to be secreted, but accumulates in the airway.
Kartagener syndrome is a hereditary disease in which dynein arms are lacking from the axonemes of cilia and flagella. Predict the effect of Kartagener syndrome on a man's ability to father a child. Predict its effect on his respiratory health. Explain both answers.
In the condensed form of a metaphase chromosome, genes would be tucked away, inaccessible to RNA polymerase, and therefore unable to carry out the cellular functions that occur in G1. The finely dispersed form of chromatin in G1 makes the genes accessible for transcription, but it would be unsuitable for mitosis because it would become very tangled and difficult or impossible to divide evenly between daughter cells.
Why would the supercoiled, condensed form of chromosomes seen in metaphase not be suitable for the G1 phase of the cell cycle? Why would the finely dispersed chromatin of the G1 phase not be suitable for mitosis?
In order to code for anything, the uncoiling of the double helix of DNA must expose a variety of base sequences to the action of RNA polymerase. If the cross-bridges of the DNA molecule (the "rungs" from one backbone to the other) were all deoxyribose, then the RNA polymerase would read only a monotonous string of identical messages. There would be no diversity in the message—in effect, no code.
Suppose a woman was heterozygous for blood type A and her husband had blood type AB. With the aid
of a Punnett square, explain what blood type(s) their children could possibly have.
Mutation is unavoidable, mutation is genetic change, and genetic change in a population is evolution. Therefore, evolution is inevitable.
Given the information in this chapter, present an argument that evolution
is not merely possible but inevitable. (Hint: Review the definition of evolution in chapter 1.)
Such an mRNA would have to be at least 903 bases long. It would require a 3-base codon for each of the 300 amino acids, plus a stop codon.
What would be the minimum length (approximate number of bases) of
an mRNA that coded for a protein 300 amino acids long?
First, while it is true that a single gene can code for a single polypeptide, all proteins that have quaternary structure are composed of more than one polypeptide, unless both chains are identical, there would need to be at least two genes (one for each polypeptide). Additionally, both posttranslational modification of polypeptides and the addition of a signal sequence can direct change both the structure and function of the final product or protein.
Until recently, textbooks taught the concept of "one gene, one protein"—that a gene is a segment of DNA that codes for just one protein, and every protein is represented by a separate gene. Discuss the evidence that shows that this can no longer be regarded as true.
What are the common components of the prokaryotic cell wall?
What 2 things did Watson and Crick do?
What is the cytoplasm of a eukaryote?
What does a lysosome look like?
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A tobacco company produces blends of tobacco, with each blend containing various proportions of Turkish, domestic, and other tobaccos. The proportions of Turkish and domestic in a blend are random variables with joint density function (X=Turkish and Y=domestic) f(x,y)=24xy, for 0 $\leq x,y \leq 1$, x+y $\leq 1$, f(x,y)=0, elsewhere. (a) Find the probability that in a given box the Turkish tobacco accounts for over half the blend. (b) Find the marginal density function for the proportion of the domestic tobacco. (c) Find the probability that the proportion of Turkish tobacco is less than 1/8 if it is known that the blend contains 3/4 domestic tobacco.