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Unit 13 Organizer: Civil Rights & the 1960s
Terms in this set (61)
Civil Rights Movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
first African-American in major league baseball
Brown v. Board
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Little Rock Crisis
1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
A black seamstress and the Montgomery NAACP's secretary who became famous for her refusal to stand on a bus when a white man wished to sit, and was subsequently arrested. This began a city-wide boycott of the bus system, which was highly detrimental to those companies and set a movement in place to remove transportation segregation as well.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
1929-1968. Pivotal leader of the American Civil Rights movement. Non-violent leader, became youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 for his efforts to end segregation and racial discrimination. Led Montgomery Bus Boycott, helped found Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and led March on Washington in 1963 where he delivered "I have a Dream" speech.
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn't speak out against racism.
March on Washington & the I Have a Dream Speech
In August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill. The high point came when MLK Jr., gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to more than 200,000 marchers in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
Malcolm X & the Nation of Islam
African American Muslim leader who fought for Civil Rights for all minorities(((((need More))))
De Jure vs. De Facto Segregation
De jure Segregation: Segregation imposed by law. & De facto Segregation: Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.??????
Civil Rights Act of 1964
FEDERAL LEGISLATION THAT PROHIBITS DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, SEX OR NATIONAL ORIGIN
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap.
John F. Kennedy
..., 1960; Democrat; Cold War: Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis; established the Peace Corps, domestic program called the "New Frontier," promoted civil rights, major supporter of the space program; assassintated by Lee Harvey Oswald in 1963
The New Frontier
..., Made by JFK with hopes to increase aid to education, provide health insurance to the elderly, created department of Urban Affairs and helped migrate workers
..., the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
..., A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
..., A Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Also famous for denouncing Stalin and allowed criticism of Stalin within Russia.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
..., failed invasion of Cuba in 1961 when a force of 1,200 Cuban exiles, backed by the United States, landed at the Bay of Pigs.
Cuban Missile Crisis
(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba
The Space Race
..., A heated competition between the United States and the Soviet Union to develop the first real-world exploration of outer space.
Lyndon B. Johnson
..., (1963-1965) and (1965-1969) The 24th Amendment is added in 1964. In 1965 the 25th Amendment is passed and in 1967 it is added to the Constitution.
The Great Society
..., A plan which included: the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Medicare, Medicaid, the War on Poverty, and programs offering federal aid for education.
War on Poverty
..., President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
..., a preschool program for children from low-income families that also provides healthcare, nutrition services, and social services
..., A federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
..., A public assistance program designed to provide healthcare to poor Americans.
What was the Plessy v. Ferguson decision?
..., Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), holds that segregation is permissible under "separate but equal" circumstances.
How did WWII set the stage for the Civil Rights Movement?
WWII opened up job opportunities for African Americans due to the shortage of white men in the works force
Who was the attorney who represented the NAACP in the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court case?
..., Edmund Randolph
What decision did the Supreme Court make in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka?
..., Segregation in schools was illegal.
Who were the Freedom Riders?
..., people who rode buses to end segregation in facilities serving interstate bus passengers
Why was Birmingham, Alabama called "the most segregated city in America?"
Because the whites bombed a lot of African American houses and churches
What was MLK's answer to his critics who felt he was pushing the civil rights movement too fast?
they have never experienced what his race has been going through
Where did MLK deliver his famous, "I have a dream," speech? What was the occasion?
the Lincoln memorial
Explain how the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a success for civil rights leaders
..., There was a lot of protesting, sit-ins, etc. people didn't listen to the authorities
What was Freedom Summer?
..., A project led by students who went to Mississippi in the summer to get African-Americans the right to vote
Why was the Voting Rights Act of 1965 a major civil rights victory?
..., it banned literacy tests for voting rights and provided for federal registrars to assure the franchise to minority voters
What is the difference between "de jour" and "de facto" segregation?
one is social and the other is fact
How did the Civil Rights Movement change beginning in the mid 1960s?
..., During WWII, African Americans contributed to the war effort. Therefore, they didn't want to come back to the U.S. to the same unfairness and inhumanity that they endured previously. Blacks wanted to be considered equal to other races. The civil rights movement began 9 years after the war ended.
How did Malcolm X's view of what needed to be done to advance civil rights for African-Americans differ from MLK's?
..., Take whatever steps necessary.
Who was the leader of the Black Panthers and what was "Black Power"?
..., John J. Pershing
Why was 1968 considered a turning point in civil rights?
..., 1968 was a year of riots, rebellion, assassinations, and political and economic change. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert Kennedy were assassinated.
What is affirmative action?
..., Making an extra effort to hire and promote those in protected groups, particularly when those groups are underrepresented.
What factors played a major role in helping John F. Kennedy win the presidential election of 1960?
What was Kennedy's "flexible response" idea toward foreign policy?
..., the buildup of conventional troops and weapons
Why did President Eisenhower ask Congress to enact trade barriers and later cut off diplomatic relations with Cuba?
..., He had pomised to help South Vietnam (non commumist Vietnam) fight against communism (North Vietnam).
Why was the CIA-planned Bay of Pigs Invasion in 1961 a failure?
Components of Brigade 2506 landed at the Bay of Pigs on April 17, 1961 and were defeated within 2 days by Cuban armed forces under the direct command of Castro.
What led to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962?
..., For many years Cubans living under Spanish rule had been mistreated by their government. In 1892, Jose Marti led the "Cuban Revolutionary Party," which sought to free Cuba from Spanish Rule. Many Cuban rebels started to fight for independence only to be forced into jail, work camps, have their homes and lands taken away and see their families starve to death.
Why was the Berlin Wall erected?
To keep them out east berlin, USSR built the berlin wall dividing east berlin from west berlin, to keep citizens from east berlin from fleeing. It does not exist today
To what was JFK referring when he talked about The New Frontier
...developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
What was JFK's program to provide voluntary assistance to developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America?
Why did JFK say we needed to win the space race?
a better education system
To what did JFK refer when he talked of "the other America?"
What four things did the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 do to fight LBJ's "War on Poverty?"
It provided money for them to attend college, arranged loans for veterans trying to buy homes, farms, and businesses, it helped them find work, and gave them unemployment benefits for a year.
What Great Society program provided low-cost health insurance to every American aged 65 and over?
Name the Supreme Court case that established the principle of "one man, one vote?"
Giddeon vs. Wayneright,
Name the Supreme Court case that required that the accused be provided a lawyer to represent them at trial
Ingle vs. Vitali
Name the Supreme Court case that ruled that the accused must be advised of his/her rights before he/she is questioned by the police.
Mueller vs. Oregon
Name the Supreme Court cases that ruled that evidence seized illegally may not be admitted in court
Roe v. Wade
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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The 1920s And The Great Depression
The Early Cold War and the 1950s(1945-1960)
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