Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
AP Psych: Chapter 12- Social Psychology
Terms in this set (43)
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Example: How we react in social situations.
The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
Example: Mrs. McKinley is cranking today, therefore she has a cranky disposition.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
Example: To assume that Mrs. McKinley is cranky because of her disposition, rather than to attribute to to the fact that she's had a migraine for days.
Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
Example: I dislike school, so I have a poor attitude towards it.
Central Route to Persuasion
Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
Example: a good speaker
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
Example: an attractive speaker
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
Example: If you're willing to open the door for me when I'm carrying my groceries, so maybe next time you'll help me carry in the bags.
A set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
Example: Teachers have a role- a way they ought to behave.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
Example: Changing our ideas to fit with what's going on right now.
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Example: Wearing Sperry's because everyone else is.
Normative Social Influence
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Example: Telling on someone to gain the approval of your teacher.
Informational Social Influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
Example: Believing what you read on FB
Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
Example: Running better/faster when there are others around.
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal when individually accountable.
Example: So ANNOYING, when someone in your group does nothing and just lets you do everything.
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Example: Doing something that you would normally never DREAM of doing, but because everyone else is doing it, so will you.
The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
Example: Doing something just because everyone else in the group is doing it.
The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
Example: I may think something different, but because everyone else in the group is saying something else, I'll agree with them.
An unjustifiable (an usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
Example: Being against someone because of generalized stereotypes.
A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
Example: Gay people are flamboyant.
Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
Example: During times of slavery.
"Us" - people with whom we share a common identity.
Example: My friends
"Them"- those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.
Example: My acquaintances
The tendency to favor our own group.
Example: I favor my friends over my acquaintances.
The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
Example: Administration tends to place all blame on the students for something happening, even if it wasn't their fault.
The tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than the faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
Example: "All black people look the same"
The tendency for people to believe the world is jsut and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
Any physical or verbal intended to hurt or destroy.
The principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression.
Example: I'm frustrated with someone, and that eventually builds up and makes me angry and aggresive.
Mere Exposure Effect
The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
Example: Being continously exposed to a song that I initially disliked makes me like it.
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
Example: The "honeymoon" stage
The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
Example: Old married couple
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
Example: You only get out what you give
Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
Example: Revealing secrets to your best friend
Unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
Example: I'm having a horrible day, but I'll still help that person in need.
The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
Example: I won't call 911 for that car accident because I assume that someone else already has.
Social Exchange Theory
The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
Example: Our goal for social behavior is to act in a way that will benefit us, not hurt us.
An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
Example: I give you my homework to copy Monday, then you will give me yours if I need it.
An expectation that people will help those dependent upon those.
Example: I feel responsible to help older people because not only do they need help, but also because society expects me to do so.
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
Example: I have a conflict with a certain classmate
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
Example: To rival teams messing with each other in a way that eventually leads to them both being in a compromising situation.
Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
Example: In a war this applies
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
Example: Someone I don't like also hates someone i hate, so we get along in that respect.
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
Example: Used in government.
Recommended textbook explanations
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Richard A. Kasschau
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 14 (Social Psychology)
Chapter 14: Social Psychology
Chapter 16—Social Psychology EXAMPLES
Sets found in the same folder
Brain and Society: Studying the Brain
Chapter 5: Development
AP Psychology - Social Psychology
Psych ch.9: people and their theories
Other sets by this creator
PSY 231- Chapters 2 & 3
BIO 155- scientific names
THE 191: Chapter 7
Is punishment an effective tool of learning? Describe the advantages or disadvantages of using punishment to teach a child a behavior.
Explain one weaknesses and one straight of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.
People are more likely to disobey an authority figure when a. they are alone with the authority figure. b. the authority figure is male. c. the authority figure's request would cause harm to another person. d. they are in a group with more than three people. e. they have seen someone else disobey.
Ulric's doctor suggested that he consider moving to an area where there is greater sunlight or purchasing a light box that emits a bright light. Given these treatment options, Ulric's doctor must have diagnosed Ulric with a. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. b. a seasonal pattern for depressive disorders. c. post traumatic stress disorder. d. antisocial personality disorder. e. agoraphobia.
Other Quizlet sets
AP Psychology Ch.16 Social Psych
AP Psychology Social Psychology Unit
Chapter 16 Myers 9th edition TEST
Psych Exam 4-Ch. 16
the attitude and behavior are unconsciously motivated to match
What did Latane and Rodin find happened to help rates when people were with a confederate in the room who was scripted to not help.
what happens when people are warned that subsequent information may be false?
Jim decides to change his answer on his math homework after his friends explain to him why his original answer was incorrect. This is an example of: