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Unit 6 Africa, Chapter 19-20
Terms in this set (42)
Creates the rain shadow effect, where the rain goes up the northern slope and when it reaches the top is getting arid and then the air is arid when it reaches inland
What impact do the Atlas mountains have on the climate of this region
brought trade, new ideas, and conquering armies
In what ways has the Mediterranean Sea been an important resource to this region
it was along the Nile river and helped then farm and feed their growing population, the also conquered to the east which gave them control of timber the Aswan High damn gives hydroelectric power and farming year round
What advantages does Egypt's location give it over the other-other countries in this region
What is the largest desert in the world
hot, windy, and during winter cold
How would you describe the climate in the world's largest desert
on the west coast Mediterranean region and it is on the mountain slopes
Where is most rainfall in this region and why
farming, drinking (population is growing)
Why is water the most important daily resource in this region
by living near the Nile, or aquifers
In what ways do people have access to this water
born into a lower caste, people could not move up in society, regardless of their talents, The top class was made up of Brahmans, or priests. Next came the warriors. Third were the merchants. The bottom class consisted of laborers and peasants
The social structure of ancient Egyptians.
The rich floodwaters of the Nile allowed farmers to produce enough food to support a growing population, some members of this early society began to do other things besides farming. Some made pottery. Others crafted jewelry. Some became soldiers. A few became kings
Religion of ancient Egyptians
had a system of writing. The system, called hieroglyphics, used pictures to represent sounds or words
Writing of ancient Egyptians
Carthage fought three wars with the Roman Empire. In the last war, Rome defeated Carthage and destroyed the city. Rome, then, came to control western North Africa. Eventually, Rome conquered Egypt, Roman rule made many in north Africa to turn to christianity
What happened between Carthage and Rome during the Punic Wars and why are important
Followers of this religion—called Muslims—began to conquer other lands. By A.D. 642, they had conquered Egypt. By A.D. 705, they ruled all of North Africa. Islam
What impact has the rise of Islam had on the culture of this region
series of revolts, rejections of Western influences on Muslim society, led by pro-democracy groups- Gaddafi was captured and killed during revolts in Libya (major one)
What is "Arab Spring" Why did it happen
Egyptians, Berbers, and Arabs are the main groups in this region- the cities are very busy- bustling centers of industry and trade. They also are a blend of traditional cultures and modern life
What is Life like for people living in the cities of this region
Farming villages in rural Egypt can be as small as 500 people-Families live in homes built of mud brick with few windows-walk to work in the fields outside the village. Many use hand tools and rely on muscle power or animal power. At day's end, they return home and use terrace farming in the Atlas mountians
What is life like for people living in the rural areas of the region
The income gained from selling oil did not reach most of the country's people
What challenges continue to face this region economically
High population growth is a major concern in Libya and Egypt. This growth rate contributes to crowding and inadequate health care, as well as poverty
What challenges continue to face this region socially
Two political forces are strong in the region of North Africa. One is a push for democracy. The second force was an increase in Islamic fundamentalism-Many North Africans have grown more and more frustrated with their leaders. They think the leaders focused more on building their own power than on building the economy and improving their countries-Some strict Muslims want laws changed to conform to the rules of Islam. They want to see an end to Western influences on their culture
What challenges continue to face this region politically
series of large valleys and depressions in Earth's surface
What is the rift valley
Africa is such a widespread area that covers many different features of the land
Why is the physical geography of this region so diverse
Sudd and slowly moving through it, the canal would allow more water to flow downstream and reach Sudan and Egypt. That would support more agriculture and better city services in those countries
How is the Nile River important
second-largest freshwater lake in the world-The lake is home to more than 200 species of fish. Of these, tilapia has the most economic value
How is Lake Victoria important
coast is warm rather than the highland are snowy and cold
What factors impact the climate of this region
It happens when long periods of drought which it destroys vegetation
Why is desertification a problem in this region and
Why does desertification need to be fixed
The soils in the region are not especially rich for agriculture, and farming is challenging. The breathtaking scenery of the Great Rift Valley, however, is an important tourist resource-Great Migration. In this mass movement, more than 1 million animals travel hundreds of miles in search of fresh grazing land. The spectacular wildlife of East Africa makes an important contribution to the economy of the region
How are land and wildlife important in this region
In about 1050 B.C., the powerful civilization of Kush arose in Nubia.
The Egyptians traded for a lot of valuable items such as gold and ivory.
In turn, the Kushites adopted some of Egyptian culture.
Example: building pyramids
Who were the kush
Around A.D. 350, Kush was conquered by Aksum, located in what is now northern Ethiopia.
At its height, it was the greatest trading market of northeastern Africa.
Along with goods, Christianity spread along the trade routes controlled by the Aksum empire.
This helped Christianity spread.
How did the kingdom of Aksum aid in the spread of Christianity
The goal for European countries was to gain economically and try and influence the African people toward Christianity.
The spread of Christianity and European languages had a long-lasting impact on this region.
What impact does imperialism have on this region
In the 1990s, Rwanda's Hutu-dominated government carried out genocide against the Tutsi minority.
Hundreds of thousands of people were killed
What challenges arose when Rwanda gained their independence
gained their independence but then fell under the rule of military dictator Idi Amin.
It is estimated that hundreds of thousands died under his rule
What challenges arose when Uganda gained their independence
Since the 1970s, Somalia has had a civil war and also border disputes with Ethiopia.
Drought and famine also hit Somalia in the early 1990s.
Thousands of refugees from Somalia fled to neighboring Kenya.
What challenges arose when Somalia gained its independence
Eritrea became independent of Ethiopia in 1993 but struggles to feed its people and grow a civilian workforce
What challenges arose when Eritrea gained its independence
South Sudan, Africa's newest country, became independent in 2011.
Part of the split from Sudan was religious. Most people in the north are Muslim, while the south is split between traditional religions and Christianity.
Petroleum deposits in the south also created economic conflict and started a civil war
What challenges arose when Sudan gained its independence
Many large cities are on or near the coast of the Indian Ocean and have a large population- while the highlands are inland and have a less population
Explain the population divide between urban and rural areas in this region
Swahili and English are used by large numbers of people to communicate. Those two languages are the official languages of the Kenyan legislature and of the courts- East African countries have often made an impact on the languages spoken there. For example, in Somalia the official language is Somali
What are the most common languages spoken in this region
about 60 percent of Ethiopians are Christian-Kenya, the constitution guarantees freedom of religion. Christianity first arrived in Kenya with the Portuguese in the 1400-Tanzania is evenly split among Christianity, Islam, and traditional African religions. About one-third of the population follows each one of these three religious traditions
What are the most common religions practiced in this region
the roof might consist of a thatched-roof dwelling with very little in the way of modern or sanitary conveniences and often no electricity
Describe life for people who live in the rural parts of this region
This means that stories, fables, poems, proverbs, and family histories are passed by word of mouth from one generation to the next
How does oral tradition influence culture in this region?
Farmers in the region, however, face difficult challenges. First, the soils in East Africa are not especially fertile. Second, climate conditions are often unpredictable. Rainfall can be intermittent. Drought can severely damage crops
What challenges continue to face this region economically
People are cutting down trees to meet their energy needs at an alarming rate. They use the wood to cook food and heat their homes. Along with deforestation, desertification poses serious problems in countries like Sudan
What challenges continue to face this region environmentally
One of the main causes of hunger and malnutrition in the region has been war-HIV/AIDS is a serious and often fatal disease affecting people in the region. AIDS is an abbreviation that stands for "acquired immune deficiency syndrome." AIDS is caused by a virus that spreads from person to person
What challenges continue to face this region health wise
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