Health Behaviors- are behaviors undertaken by ppl to enhance or maintain their health.
Health habit- health behavior that is firmly established and often formed automatically without awareness
Habits usually develop in childhood and begin to stabilize around age 11 or 12
Examples of habits: wearing a seat belt, brushing one's teeth, eating healthy diet
Habits can be highly resistant to change
It is important to establish good health behaviors and to eliminate poor one's early in life.
Belloc and Breslow conducted a study of ppl living in Alameda, California
Important health habits: Sleeping 7-8 hrs a night, Not smoking, eating breakfast each day, having no more than one or two alcoholic drinks each day, getting regular exercise, not eating between meals, being no more than 10 % overweight.
They asked 7,000 county residents to say which of these behaviors they practiced; also asked about their illnesses, their energy level, and how disabled they had been over the previous 6-12 month period.
They found out that the more good health habits ppl practiced, the fewer illnesses they had, the better they felt, and the less disabled they had been
Makes the assumption that ppl will change their health habits if they have good info about their habits
The fact that attitude change may not lead to behavior change has prompted research on what additional factors may be involved
Assumes that if ppl are afraid that a particular habit is hurting their health, they will change their behavior to reduce their fear
This relationship doesn't always hold
Persuasive messages that elicit too much fear my actually undermine health behavior change
Fear alone may not be sufficient to change behavior
Fear can increase defensiveness which reduces how effective an appeal will be
Health Belief Model-
Whether a person practices a health behavior depends on 2 factors: whether the person perceives a personal health threat and whether the person believes that a particular health practice will be effective in reducing that threat.
The health threat has 3 factors: general health values, specific beliefs about personal vulnerability to a particular disorder and beliefs about the consequences of the disorder
A person believing that a health measure will reduce threat has 2 factors: whether the person thinks the health practice will be effective and whether the cost of doing these measures exceeds its benefits
The health belief model does leave out a sense of self efficacy: the belief that one can control one's practice of a particular behavior
Theory of Planned Behavior:
A health behavior is the direct result of a behavioral intention
Behavioral intentions have 3 components: attitudes towards the specific action, subjective norms regarding action, and perceived behavioral control
Its components predict behaviors like risky sexual activity among heterosexuals, consumption of soft drinks, and food safety practices
Criticisms: not always the impetus to take action on altering the health habits
This ignores the fact that some behavior change occurs automatically and is not subject to awareness
Health habits that are accomplished automatically in response to minimal cue
Ppl also change on their own. Self regulation- ppl control their own actions, emotions, and thoughts
Self Determination Theory-
idea that ppl are actively motivated to pursue their goals.
2 components: autonomous motivation and perceived competence
Ppl are autonomously motivated when making decisions
Competence refers to the belief that one is capable of making the health behavior change
Has shown some success in changing behaviors like smoking and adherence to meds
A model that analyzes the stages and processes ppl go through in bringing about a change in behavior and suggested tx goals and interventions for each stage.
1. Pre-contemplation- a person has no intention of changing his or her behavior
2. Contemplation- ppl are aware that they have a problem and are thinking about it but have not yet made a commitment.
3. Preparation- ppl intend to change their behavior but have not yet done so successfully
4. Action- ppl modify their behavior to overcome the problem
5. Maintenance- ppl work to prevent relapse and to consolidate the gains they have made.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)- focus on the target behavior itself, the conditions that elicit and maintain it, and the factors that reinforce it.
Most effective approach
Self monitoring- person must understand dimensions of poor health habit before change can begin.
assesses the frequency of target behavior and the antecedents and consequences of that behavior
1st step- learn to discriminate the target behavior
2nd step- chart the behavior
Stimulus Control- involve ridding the environment of discriminative stimuli that evoke the problem behavior and creating new discriminative stimuli, signaling that a new response will be reinforced.
Self-control- the person acts as his or her own therapist and together with outside guidance learns to control the antecedents and consequences of the target behavior
Motivational Interviewing- client-centered counseling designed to get ppl to work through any ambivalence they experience about changing their health behaviors
Contingency Contracting- an individual forms a contract w/ another person, detailing what rewards or punishments are contingent on the performance or nonperformance of a behavior.
Social Skills training- ppl are trained in methods that help them deal more effectively with social anxiety
finance The following are data regarding last year's production of Old Joe, one of the major products of Columbus Toy Company:
| Purchases of direct materials |$\$400,000$ |
| :---: | :---: |
| Direct materials used | 402,000|
| Direct labor payrolls (paid during the year) | 180,000 |
| Direct labor costs assigned to production | 220,000 |
| Manufacturing overhead (incurred and applied) | 330,000 |
During the year, 50,000 units of this product were manufactured and 51,500 units were sold. Selected information concerning inventories during the year follows:
| | **Beginning of Year** | **End of Year** |
| :---: | :---: | :---: |
| Materials | $\$?$ | $\$15,000$ |
| Work in Process | 6,000 | 5,000 |
| Finished Goods, Jan. 1 (4,000 units @ $19) |$?$ | 76,000 |
a. Prepare a schedule of the cost of finished goods manufactured for the Old Joe product. politics of the united states