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Terms in this set (56)

Younger, more affluent, better educated ppl w/ low levels of stress and high levels of social support practice better behaviors than ppl under high levels of stress w/ fewer resources.

Health habit are good in childhood and older ppl
These habits deteriorate in adolescence and young adulthood

Exercise for women may be considered desirable in one culture but undesirable in another.

Ppl who regard their health as under their personal control practice better health habits than ppl who regard their health as due to chance.

Locus of Control-
Internal- I think I make the world
External- I think the world controls me

Stress-leads to worst behaviors

Social support
Family, friends, and workplace ppl can help with health behaviors in a beneficial direction and other times in a adverse direction
Ex: peer pressure often leads to smoking in adolescence but may influence ppl to stop smoking in adulthood

Health habits are tied to personal goals; if personal fitness is an important goal, a person is more likely to exercise.

Perceived sxs:
A smoker who wakes up w/ a smoker's cough and raspy throat may cut back in the belief that he or she is vulnerable to health problems at that time.

Access to HC-
Ppl w/ high SES= more access to HC
Ppl w/ low SES= less to no access to HC

More knowledgable and smarter ppl typically take better care of themselves


Emotional Factors:
Poor health behaviors can be pleasurable, automatic, addictive, and resistant to change.
Ppl may perceive a health threat to be less relevant than it really is and they may falsely see themselves as less vulnerable than or dissimilar to other ppl w/ same habit
leads ppl to minimize their risks and feel a false sense of security


Health Habits are unstable over time
Different health habits are controlled by different factors
Different factors may control the same health behavior for different ppl
Factors controlling a health behavior may change over the history of the behavior
Factors controlling a health behavior may change across a person's lifetime

Physiological mechanisms- Insulin Resistance

Stability of health habits
Educational Appeals-
Makes the assumption that ppl will change their health habits if they have good info about their habits
The fact that attitude change may not lead to behavior change has prompted research on what additional factors may be involved

Fear Appeals-
Assumes that if ppl are afraid that a particular habit is hurting their health, they will change their behavior to reduce their fear
This relationship doesn't always hold
Persuasive messages that elicit too much fear my actually undermine health behavior change
Fear alone may not be sufficient to change behavior
Fear can increase defensiveness which reduces how effective an appeal will be

Health Belief Model-
Whether a person practices a health behavior depends on 2 factors: whether the person perceives a personal health threat and whether the person believes that a particular health practice will be effective in reducing that threat.
The health threat has 3 factors: general health values, specific beliefs about personal vulnerability to a particular disorder and beliefs about the consequences of the disorder

A person believing that a health measure will reduce threat has 2 factors: whether the person thinks the health practice will be effective and whether the cost of doing these measures exceeds its benefits

The health belief model does leave out a sense of self efficacy: the belief that one can control one's practice of a particular behavior

Theory of Planned Behavior:
A health behavior is the direct result of a behavioral intention
Behavioral intentions have 3 components: attitudes towards the specific action, subjective norms regarding action, and perceived behavioral control
Its components predict behaviors like risky sexual activity among heterosexuals, consumption of soft drinks, and food safety practices
Criticisms: not always the impetus to take action on altering the health habits
This ignores the fact that some behavior change occurs automatically and is not subject to awareness
Health habits that are accomplished automatically in response to minimal cue

Ppl also change on their own. Self regulation- ppl control their own actions, emotions, and thoughts

Self Determination Theory-
idea that ppl are actively motivated to pursue their goals.
2 components: autonomous motivation and perceived competence
Ppl are autonomously motivated when making decisions
Competence refers to the belief that one is capable of making the health behavior change
Has shown some success in changing behaviors like smoking and adherence to meds

Transtheoretical Model-
A model that analyzes the stages and processes ppl go through in bringing about a change in behavior and suggested tx goals and interventions for each stage.
1. Pre-contemplation- a person has no intention of changing his or her behavior
2. Contemplation- ppl are aware that they have a problem and are thinking about it but have not yet made a commitment.
3. Preparation- ppl intend to change their behavior but have not yet done so successfully
4. Action- ppl modify their behavior to overcome the problem
5. Maintenance- ppl work to prevent relapse and to consolidate the gains they have made.

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)- focus on the target behavior itself, the conditions that elicit and maintain it, and the factors that reinforce it.
Most effective approach

Self monitoring- person must understand dimensions of poor health habit before change can begin.
assesses the frequency of target behavior and the antecedents and consequences of that behavior
1st step- learn to discriminate the target behavior
2nd step- chart the behavior

Stimulus Control- involve ridding the environment of discriminative stimuli that evoke the problem behavior and creating new discriminative stimuli, signaling that a new response will be reinforced.

Self-control- the person acts as his or her own therapist and together with outside guidance learns to control the antecedents and consequences of the target behavior

Motivational Interviewing- client-centered counseling designed to get ppl to work through any ambivalence they experience about changing their health behaviors

Contingency Contracting- an individual forms a contract w/ another person, detailing what rewards or punishments are contingent on the performance or nonperformance of a behavior.

Social Skills training- ppl are trained in methods that help them deal more effectively with social anxiety