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alluvial soil

rich soil made up of sand and mud deposited by running water


Greek for "land between 2 rivers"


a streambed that is dry except during a heavy rain, in the desert


term for deserts in central asia


natural mineral containing chemical compounds often used in fertilizers


sandy, dune covered areas


stony plains covered with a rocky gravel called "desert pavement"


flat sandstone plateau


small area in a desert where water and vegetation are found


raising of livestock


any grain such as barley, oats, or wheat, grown for food

ethnic diversity

differences among groups of people based on their origins, languages, customs, or beliefs

Ottoman Turks

built the ottoman empire, which ruled much of the eastern mediteranean world for more than 600 years


this word means "land of Aryans", about 66 million people live here/ many believe they are descendants of Aryans/


the basic urban necessities like streets and utilities


to adapt plants and animalss from the wild and make them useful to people

culture hearth

center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward


Sumerian writing system using wedge shaped symbols pressed into clay tablets


egyptian writing system using pictures and symbols to represent words or sounds


underground canal used in water systems of ancient persians

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