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Quiz 2 2019 Pathology
Terms in this set (64)
Wilms' tumor is the most common abdominal neoplasm of infancy and childhood. The lesion arise from embryonic renal tissue and may be bilateral or unilateral / Wilm's tumor is a highly malignant tumor and must be differentiated from neuroblastoma ( a tumor of the adrenal medullary ) / Ultrasound can distinguish a Wilm's tumor from hydronephrosis. Wilm's tumors typically have a solid appearance on ultrasound / Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy offer an 85% cure rate.
the most common type of fusion anomaly. In this condition both kidneys are malrotated, and their lower poles are fused / the ureters arise from the kidneys anteriorly instead of medially and the lower poles point medially instead of laterally.
Inflammation of the kidneys caused by pus (infection) accumulating in the kidney and renal pelvis/ a suppurative (one in which there is pus) caused by pyogenic (pus-forming) bacteria / CT is the imaging modality of choice to diagnose pyelonephritis. / Contrast-enhanced CT can demonstrate cortical changes and associated abscess [pyelo - pelvis / renal pelvis, neph - kidney, itis - inflammation
Duplication of ureters
duplication (duplex kidney) is a common anomaly that may vary from a simple bifid pelvis to a completely double pelvic ureter
Duplication of ureters
swelling of the kidney due to a build-up of urine. It happens when urine cannot drain out from the kidney to the bladder from a blockage or obstruction. Kids - reflux infections (UTI) / Adults - obstruction
when a stone fills the renal pelvis completely- looks like ginger root
Kidney stones (renal calculi)
are asymptomatic until they lodge in the ureter and cause partial obstruction / The cause of kidney stones varies and often reflects a metabolic abnormality such as hypercalcemia (hyperparathyroidism) or any cause of increased calcium excreted in the urine. / best demonstrated by non-contrast CT.
fluid accumulation on the kidney / single or multiple / aspiration to test fluid / malignant within 2 years of diagnosis - Simple renal cysts are the most common unifocal masses of the kidney / They are fluid filled and usually unilocular (single chambered) although septa sometimes divides the cyst into chambers / Ultrasound is the modality that best demonstrates renal cysts
Asymptomatic for up to 30 years / no cure / renal failure / dialysis or kidney transplant / Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder in which multiple cysts of varying size cause lobulated enlargement of the kidneys. This leads to progressive renal impairment which causes compression of the nephrons. - 1/3 of patients with this condition also have associated cysts of the liver that do not impact the function of the liver / Ultrasound of the kidneys demonstrates grossly enlarged kidneys containing multiple cysts that vary in size.
Polycystic disease image
usually originates in the epithelium and is called urothelial carcinoma. / It is most prevalent in men older than 50 years of age and is the 4th most common cause of cancer in men. / Most common risk factor is smoking.
Bladder Cancer image
Acute renal failure
the rapid deterioration of kidney function, this results in an accumulation of nitrogen-containing wastes in the blood and is characterized by an odor on their breath of urine-like or fishy breath / Ultrasound is the best modality to access acute renal function. It can demonstrate dilatation of the ureters and renal pelvis.
Epidural, subdural and subarachnoid hematomas
Caused by trauma / Called hematoma /
Epidural - arterial
Subdural - venus
where's the hematoma?
What is the source?
Cancer that commonly metastasize to the brain
lung and breast cancer / melanomas,
colon cancer, testicular cancer and kidney tumors can also spread to the brain /
usually reach the brain by hematogenous (carried by the blood) spread
Nervous System Diseases
Bacterial, fungus and viruses can infect the brain parenchyma, meningeal linings, and bones of the skull
Most commonly diagnosed with CT or MRI
X-rays of facial bones - What position? Patient erect (to view fluid levels) - best demonstrated with CT / MRI
Blow out fracture
Le Fort Fractures
Atrial septal defects
most common of the left-to-right shunt anomalies / This condition permits free communication between the two atria as a result of either lack of closure of the foramen ovale after birth or its improper closure during gestation.
Because the left atrial pressure is higher than the right atrial pressure this results in blood shunting from the left to right and causes increased pulmonary blood flow and overloading of the right ventricle
Atrial septal defect if the most common of the left-to-right shunt anomalies
Tetralogy of Fallot
most common cause of cyanotic congenital heart disease. It contains 4 (tetra) abnormalities - High ventricular septal defect / Pulmonary stenosis / Overriding of the aortic orifice above the ventricular defect / Right ventricular hypertrophy
Ventricle septal defect
results in left-to-right shunting because the left ventricle pressure is higher / This condition causes increased pulmonary blood flow and increased pulmonary venous return.
This leads to enlargement of the left atrium and left ventricle
Ventricle septal defect
What blood disorder causes pathologic fractures?
Diseases of the hematopoietic system
Red blood cells
White blood cells
Nuetrophils-most common first cells of the immune system to respond in response to an invader such as a bacteria or a virus
Basophils-accounting for only around 1 percent of white blood cells, are important in mounting a non-specific immune response (asthma)
Eosinophils-also play an important role in fighting off bacteria and are very important in responding to infections with parasites (such as worms)
Clotting blood cells
the decrease in the amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin in the peripheral blood - Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia
Sickle cell anemia
painful bone infarcts / no cure / generally affects African Americans
neoplastic proliferation (increase) of white blood cells
sex-linked recessive gene, anomaly of blood coagulation - appears only in males-degeneration in joints due to bleeding in the joint space
generalized osteoporosis with thinning in cortical bone caused by Hemolytic anemia: Isan abnormality which results in a shortened life span of the red blood cells with resulting hemolysis (rupture or destruction of red blood cells)
malignancy of the lymph nodes
Types of Lymphoma
Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's
adrenal glands are one of the most common of metastatic sites
tumor of the adrenal medullary region - 2nd most common malignancy in children
excess of growth hormone that is produced by a tumor of the pituitary
excess production of glucocorticoid hormones that result in generalized bilateral hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex or it can be caused by a functioning or non-functioning adrenal tumor
imaged best with nuclear medicine
an acute inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid, two of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord / organisms can reach the meninges - the middle ear (ear infections) - upper respiratory tract - the frontal sinus infection - blood stream from an infection in the lungs or other sites
most commonly caused by the haemophilius influenza in neonates and young children
Highly malignant lesions that are predominantly cerebral, but similar tumors can occur in the brainstem, cerebellum or spinal canal
picture of Glioblastoma
a tumor that arises from the cells in the auditory nerve, originating in the internal auditory canal, may be singular or part of a syndrome of neurofibromatosis (genetic disorder of the nervous system)
Best demonstrated on the Water's projection-per last comp
Zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures, also known as tripod, tetrapod, quadripod, malar or trimalar fractures, are seen in the setting of traumatic injury to the face. They comprise fractures of the zygomatic arches
associated with the skull-CT
a direct blow to the orbit
A basilar skull fracture is a break of a bone in the base of the skull. Symptoms may include bruising behind the ears, bruising around the eyes, or blood behind the ear drum. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurs in about 20% of cases and can result in fluid leaking from the nose or ear. Meningitis is a complication in about 14% of cases. Other complications include cranial nerve or blood vessel injury.
severe injuries in which separation at the fracture site results in the formation of a large, complex, detached fragment that is unstable.
dilation of the ventricular system. Increase intracranial pressure / obstruction to the flow of CSF / Causes - Infection, Hemorrhage, Congenital anomalies, Neoplasm, Dural venous thrombosis
Hydrocephalus brain cancer
Metastatic brain cancer
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